Institute Of African Studies, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Institute Of African Studies, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.

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The New Contributory Pension Scheme in Nigeria:  Investment Returns  and Pensioners Benefits in Federal Universities in South-Eastern Nigeria.

The New Contributory Pension Scheme in Nigeria: Investment Returns and Pensioners Benefits in Federal Universities in South-Eastern Nigeria.

Abstract: Pension scheme administration in Nigeria, before the introduction of the new contributory scheme, was fraught with numerous problems associated with weak administration, lack of regulatory and supervisory agency, mismanagement of pension funds, absence of database on pensioners profiles, insufficient budgetary allocation and untimely release of funds which culminated in huge arrears of pension rights. Pensioners in the old scheme were subjected to untold hardship after meritorious service to the nation. The introduction of the new contributory pension scheme and investment of consolidated pension funds to generate returns accruable to pensioners as additional pension benefits have ushered in hope to hitherto hapless retirees and potential pensioners in Nigeria. The study is predicated on the agency theory as its theoretical framework. The methodology adopted primary and secondary sources of data generation. T-test is used to test the hypothesis. The article investigates the contractual relationship between the principals and agents in the pension business and to ascertain whether the agent is working to protect and serve the interest of the principal as regards to actual declaration of exact investment returns and payment of investment returns to enhance pension benefits of pensioners under the scheme. The result of the study reveals that investment of consolidated funds in the new contributory pension scheme generates additional pension benefits to retirees and the contributory workers in service. Creation of awareness about the provisions of the Act among the workforce and periodic review of the Act to reflect socioeconomic realities of the nation are recommended to make the scheme functionally meaningful to its beneficiaries.

 
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The Nigerian Playwright and the Hermeneutics of Choice: Two Views.

The Nigerian Playwright and the Hermeneutics of Choice: Two Views.

ABSTRACT: A dramatic text can possess characteristics that can distil or explicate certain significance. A deconstruction of a writer’s philosophical approach to characterization reveals it as either discursive or psychoanalytical.This research analyzes selected Nigerian plays by Ahmed Yerima and EsiabaIrobiwhich have widespread popularity with youths and examines them with reference to the current socio-political turmoil in Nigeria.The aim is to unravel the psychoanalytical basis of audience identification with the psychological characters in the literary works. The work reveals that the approach adopted by a writer can be predicated on psychological introspection or moral grandstanding. While a choice can be made between alternative attributes, often a selection is made between real options and followed by the corresponding action. Since violence has become a major staple shaping contemporary social attitude, audience sensibility and interpretation the improper heroes depicted in EsiabaIrobi and Ahmed Yerima’s works can be said to possess certain values which are commonly accepted by the Nigerian populace.Irobiand Yerima’s playswill be used to buttress the argument that the playwright’s interpretation of reality and transaction of this perception is predicated on a hermeneutic temperament and a deliberate philosophy of choice. The ethical perplexity of showing the vulgar reality of contemporary Nigeria while maintaining a decorous artistic level becomes a veritable Catch-22 scenario for the interpretive playwright.

 
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The Nigerian Press and the Struggle for Democracy

The Nigerian Press and the Struggle for Democracy

Abstract: Of all the different types of government so far experimented by the countries of the world – fascism, totalitarianism, monarchy, diarchy, aristocracy, oligarchy etc – democracy has proved to be the best form. Under democracy, the inalienable rights and essential freedoms natural to man as human are realizable. These include; the right to freedom of worship; right to freedom of speech; right to life; right to freedom of association and right to the dignity of the human person and so on. It is perhaps for this reason, among others, that the Nigerian press has continued to struggle for democracy to ensure these freedoms. For this, the vested interests, the oppressors of the poor saw the watch dogs as a pleasant whipping boy, tormenting, persecuting and using all sorts of draconian legislations and extra – judicial methods to suppress legitimate agitations. Thank goodness, the freedom of information bill has been passed into law. But despite all the indignities, the press has soldiered on. However, since 1999 when Nigeria appeared to have freed herself from the military strangle-hold, there seems to be a temptation to relax in the false hope that we have arrived the promised democratic land. But the ugly experience of the 2003 and 2007 elections provide a pointer that it is not yet Uhuru. There is the need to stress eternal vigilance as we have only substituted black imperialism for white imperialism. This paper examines the liberation struggle of the Nigerian press towards political emancipation from oppressors and urges a coordinated political mobilization of the electorate to stand up for genuine participatory democracy...

 
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The Politics of  Igbo Origins and  Culture: The Igbo-Ukwu and Nri Factors Reconsidered

The Politics of Igbo Origins and Culture: The Igbo-Ukwu and Nri Factors Reconsidered

ABSTRACT : Since the works of such colonial scholars as Arthur Glyn Leonard, Northcote W. Thomas, Armory Talbot and M.D.W. Jeffreys, followed by the epic archaeological excavations at Igbo-Ukwu and the subsequent works of M.A. Onwuejeogwu, the questions of which sub-group represent the original settlers of Igbo land as well as constitute the original bearers of Igbo culture have continued to revolve around the orbit of controversy. Until the discovery and subsequent excavation of the Igbo-Ukwu archaeological sites, these issues had revolved around the Nri, also known as the Umunri, following the accounts of the colonial writers whose works were more ethnographically sensational than historical in objective and method. Although the Umunri thesis of Igbo origins and culture was originally applied in the interpretation of the Igbo-Ukwu sites, further historical researches proved the contrary. It was this emerging evidence which revealed that, originally the Umunri were not of Igbo but of Igala extraction which consequently questioned the authenticity of the Umunri claims of primordial rights and privileges under the aegis of Igbo history and culture. It was on the basis of this twisted historical evidence the Igbo-Ukwu, from whose soil the artefacts were excavated, began the lay claims to the same primordial rights originally centered on the Umunri, thus giving rise to a stream of controversy on which the other sub-groups have either become co-contestants or biased arbiters. The present work therefore looks at this stream of controversy through telescopic approach of a historian of Igbo extraction.

 
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The  Principles  of  International  Humanitarian  Laws  and  the  Nigerian  Civil  War:  a Review of Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Roses and Bullets

The Principles of International Humanitarian Laws and the Nigerian Civil War: a Review of Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s Roses and Bullets

Abstract: The Nigerian Civil War which was fought between the federal military government and the Biafran rebels between July, 1969 and January, 1970 has generated a plethora of literature. Critical evaluation of these literary works has taken different perspectives. However, this essay takes a legalistic method that uses Akachi Adimora-Ezeigbo’s very recent novel, Roses and Bullets, to address the compliance or non -compliance of the war to the principles of international humanitarian law. It examines the fate of combatants, wounded, sick and dead soldiers in the world of the novel. It equally scrutinizes the life of the civilian population, particularly the women, children and refugees, who are caught in the conflict. The role of the medical personnel and international humanitarian bodies are examined as well as the punishment meted out to the perpetrators of abduction, rape, torture, cruel and inhuman treatment that violate the laws of the nations.

 
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The Social  Implications of  Traditional African  Performance: The Dual Functions of Akwubaliba Incarnate Being of Igala.

The Social Implications of Traditional African Performance: The Dual Functions of Akwubaliba Incarnate Being of Igala.

ABSTRACT: The Igala worldview emphasizes life, death and life after death. The Igala hold firmly that the dead are not dead. They live in an immortal world where they advocate for the living. The Igala believe that the dead who are now the ancestors can reincarnate and are born again as babies, or may return to the world as masked spirits or incarnate beings. The Akwubaliba incarnate being is one of numerous incarnate beings in Igalaland. In Igala culture, incarnate beings are sacred and sacrosanct. They serve several functions one of which is social control. The Akwubaliba which means locust are young masked spirits or incarnate beings between the ages of ten to thirteen years. The Akwubaliba incarnate beings may number up to two hundred or more. Their appearance usually sends mothers and barren women into different types of psychological and emotional states. The essence of this paper is to explore the reasons for these two groups of women’s emotional and psychological states during the outing of these young incarnate beings and the impact of such emotional and psychological states on the society.

 
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Traditional Nigerian Theatre, Ideology and the  National Question: Igbo Masquerade and  Folktale Performances as Examples.

Traditional Nigerian Theatre, Ideology and the National Question: Igbo Masquerade and Folktale Performances as Examples.

INTRODUCTION: "Nigeria’s socio-political and economic problems have largely defied scientific, technological and commercial moves towards lasting solutions. Scarcity of essential commodities is on the increase, insecurity of life and property looms high in the horizon, necessary resources for quality teaching and learning in the educational sector are still far from sight. The country’s leadership is not crossing its legs, savouring the conundrum – or is it?..."

 
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Administrative Problems of Planning Education in Nigeria

Administrative Problems of Planning Education in Nigeria

Abstract: This paper focuses attention on the administrative issues and problems of planning education in Nigeria, with special reference to the planners themselves, that is the Federal Government and state administrators. One of the major problems is that all too often, recommendations don’t come from school administrators, teachers and other school personnel. This, no doubt may have constituted problems in planning and implementation of education in Nigeria and equally led to the failure of most of the formulated educational policies. The status quo of administrative planning of education in Nigeria should be revisited considering its developmental nature against our youths who are the future of the country. For effective administrative planning the country ‘s economy should be looked into and considered before schools in Nigeria start production of graduates into the labour market, to avoid producing more number of graduates the economy can carry.

 
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An Ethno-Archaeologiccal Perspective on Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq) in Old Nsukka Division of Enugu State

An Ethno-Archaeologiccal Perspective on Oil Palm Tree (Elaeis Guineensis Jacq) in Old Nsukka Division of Enugu State

ABSTRACT: Archaeological investigations have revealed that palm oil processing technology was practiced in the Nsukka cultural area of present day Enugu state of Nigeria during the late stone age period , as evidenced from fragments of palm kernels found in the area dating to 2555-130B.C . The oil palm tree therefore is as old as the Settlement of the area by humans. At the birth of every new baby an oil palm tree is dedicated to such a child which is locally known as “Nkwo-lee’. Oil palm tree seems to have been created to meet man’s need in the study area. For there is no tree which in itself has so many uses like the tree since every part is utilized and is of great value. These include the production of timber, palm wine, leaves, basket, soap, palm kernel, pomade, palm oil etc. The tender palm frond “omu” performs numerous functions in old Nsukka Division and Igboland in general. The oil palm tree is one of the major oil producing plants in the area of study and Igboland in general surpassing any other plant in the yielding of oil. The palm tree serves various purposes in the domestic life of the people. It is also a major source of income to a greater proportion of the rural farmers in the study area. Palm oil processing in Old Nsukka Division is an indigenous technology. Palm tree therefore is a blessing of inestimable value to the people of Old Nsukka Division because of its multifarious uses. This paper therefore is designed to bring into perspective the great socio- Economic and cultural importance of oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis) through an ethno-archaeological approach in the study area.

 
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Archaeology and Traditional Mural Painting in Nsukka Area of Northern Igboland

Archaeology and Traditional Mural Painting in Nsukka Area of Northern Igboland

Abstract: It has been observed that most artistic ideas in wood, clay, and metals in Igboland are expressed through traditional mural painting symbols which convey important lexical messages. According to Willis(1987) “the Igbo woman’s perception of all aspects of life and nature and most notably ideas and objects which are held to be particularly important and representative of Igbo culture are translated into visual vocabulary which provides important reference material for designers, art historians, engineers and ethnographers alike”. This paper, therefore, seeks to bring to limelight , how the culture of Nsukka people and Igbo in general is expressed through the study of their traditional architectural wall paintings rendered in thorough naturally made indelible ink of “Uli” (black indigo), “Nzu”(natural clay), “Ufie”(red ochre gotten from plants), charcoal and other natural dyes in the form of leaves. These motifs touch on all aspects of Igbo life and serves as ethnographic evidence for studying the cultural history of the area in the absence of direct core archaeological evidence. The method applied in the course of carrying out this research is ethnographic method. This involves the collection of oral information from the extant members of the community that are knowledgeable in the topic of research. Primary secondary sources of information were used. The primary source of data came from oral tradition collected, while the secondary source came from documented literature on the topic of research. Pictures were also used for clarity sake.

 
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