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Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.

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Pests have continued to be problematic in warehouses of most feed mills and food manufacturing industres. Pests are heterogeneous both in space and time, creating gradients and patterns depending on the prevailing environmental variables. Pest control efforts have utilized manipulations of these variables. This project is ona module for thermal control of pests using the hitherto waste steam from the indusries. The module is an engineering contraption, which uses steam to raise temperature within it to insecticidal levels (above 45°C). This causes halt in development and proein denaturing (leading to mortality) of the pests (eggs, larvae and adults). This applied heat also toasts the material inside the module thereby improving its quality. The module consists of a rotary drum with steam passing through convoluted tube (without coming in contact withthe handledmaterial), with a capacity o 2 tons/hr o commodities. It accepts steam at 130°C and discharges it at 110°C. The steam pressure (permssible) is 2.7 bars. Steam velocity is 8m/s. The volume of the drum is 4 m3. A two- screw- 90 degrees-lead –counter screw-rotation typebaffle is installed to achieve even distribution of heat on the material within the drum. The moduleis efficient, effective and useful in any integrated pest management effort.

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Mosquito control strategies adopted by the residents of two Ishiagu Communities (Okue and Ihie)were investgated. 53 households in Okue and 54 in Ihie were sampled. Simple structured questionnaires were prepared and administered. Percentages and chi square (X2) test of significance was employed in analysing the data. The result revealed that 429 % of the residents of the two communities used insecticides, 25.2% used mosquito coils, 6.5% used smoke of local herbs and 5.6% were insensitive to mosquito nuisance and careless about mosquito control. Choice of control measures by residents of the two communities were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Occupational related preferences revealed that farmers ranked highest in the use of insecticides and coils (21.5%) each. 131% of teachers use insecticides and 37% use nettings. Statistical analysis of the occupational related choice patterns was significant (P < 005).

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The length-weight relatonship and condition factor of four mormyrid species namely Mormyrus rume, Hyperopisus bebe, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Gnathonemus petersii from Anambra river were investigated from October 2002 to March 2004. In al400 species M. rume, 384 H. bebe417 C. tamandua and 335 G. petersii were sampled for the study Length-weigh relationship showed that the exponent “b,’ were 3.067, 2.459, 3.201 and 3.114 for M. rume, H. bebe, C. tamandua and G. petersii respectively. The mormyrid species studied with exception of H. bebe exhibited isometric growth and the correlation coefficients were positive and highly sgnificant (P < 0.05). The condtion factor (k) varied from 0.69 ± 0.22 in G. petersii to 1.17 ± 0.59 in M. rume. There were no significant difference in the mean condition facor between themales and females inall the mormyrid species. The importance of condition factor in the breeding activities o the mormyrid species revealed that not much energy s diverted into gonad synthesis and maturation during the breeding cycle season.

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Octanol/water partition coefficient and bioaccumulation index of Bonny light crude oil, having a ractonal percentage composition of 81.11 saturate, 7.20 aromatcs, 2.48 ashphaltene and 9.21 residues, were studied in microcosm aquaria using a fresh water catfish Clarias agboyiensis. The partition coefficient (Kf iiii tow) of the crude oil was evaluated to be 0.74. The mean bioaccumulation values of the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in the homogenates of the whole fish, liver and kdney at intervals of 24, 72 and 120 hours were respectvely 0.845 ± 0.118, 11.0 ± 0.058 and 15.0 ± 0.064 after exposing the whole fishto sedimentand water, respectively containing 31 μg/g and 190 μg/l of the crude oil in the aquarium. The mean bioaccumulation values of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in the tissue homogenates of the exposed fish were higher than in the control (p<0.05), thus suggesing that Bonny light crude oil with Kow of 0.74 could be lipophilic.

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The prevalence of caprine strongyle infections and the diagnostic efficacy of some culture media in supporting the recovery of strongyle larvae were evaluated using 840 faecal sampes collected from goats during slaughter at Maiduguri Metropolitan abattoir. Faecal examination conducted by the modfied McMaster technique revealed that outof 840 goats examined, 708 (83.8 %) shedded strongyle eggs in their faeces. The prevalence of infection was significantly (P < 005) higher among female, young and diarrhoeic goats than their corresponding male, adult and non-diarrheic counterparts. Faecal culture and larval recovery using the test tube filter paper technique revealedthat the direct culture o faecal samples without any additional culture medium supported the recovery of the largest number of nematode infecve larvae from the faeces. When this was used as a standard (100% egg hatch or 0% reduction in egg hatch), larval recovery was highest (P<0.05) from goat faeces (98.4 %) folowed respectively by sheep faeces (57.7 %), cow faeces (52.4 %), horse faeces (42.3 %) and so (18.6 %) as culture media. The results therefore indicatethe superor diagnostic quality o goat faeces as a culture medium for the recovery of infective nematode stages in goat faeces.

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Tails of three groups of the Gekkonid lizard, Hemidactylus flavivirdis, were amputated (group I) orautotomized (groups II and III). The animals were exposed to 12 hours of ight and 12 hours of darkness. Ingroup I experiment, previously regenerated tails were amputated (repeated autotomyRA) with a pair of sharp scissors, after anesthetizing the animals with ice cubes, at point equivalent to three autotomy segments. The orginal planes of autotomy have been replaced by ependymal tubes and there were noblood exudates,. In group II the spinal cord at thelocal site of autotomy was carefuly removed (spinal cord removed, SCR), with dissecting instruments, for a length equal to one autotomy segment Lizards in group III served as controls (NormalLizard NL). The results show that the initiation o regeneration, the growth rate, the total length of new growth (regenerate) produced, and the total percentage replacement of the lost (amputated/autotomized) tails 30 days after excision were all signiicantly less in lizards of group II (p < 001) and insignifcantly less in group I lzards, when compared with the controls (group III). The results show that for complete regeneration of the lizard tai neural tissue must be present.

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The food and feeding habits of 417 samples of Campylomormyrus tamandua (Osteichthyes Mormyridae) in Anambra River, Nigeria were studied from October 2002 to March 2004. Fish samples were collected monthly at Otuocha and Ogurugu river ports along the Anambra river using a fleet of gill nets of various mesh sizes, traps and hook and lines. Out of the eight (8) categories ofood consumed, the most dominant group was benthic invertebrates (IFS = 4492) followed by alochthonous invertebrates (IFS = 33.40) whe the least was mud/sand (IFS = 10.02). Variaton in the stomach fullness condition showed that 82 (19.66%) ofthe stomachs studied were empty 40 (9.59%) were full while 295 (7074%) were partially filled Food richness and diet breadth showed no significant difference between the seasons and sex respectively (P > 0.05). The trophicvariations and flexibility in C. tamandua are discussed.

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The susceptibility of 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were evaluated in laboratory. Larval mortality was assessed 24 hour afterexposure. The result showed that the LDi, .50 values for Aedes aegypti exposed to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were 0.48, 37.09 and 0.29 μg per liter respectvely. The LD50 values for Culex quinquefasciatus of exposed to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were 0.11 10.05 and 005 μg per liter respectively.

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Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the pupicidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts (NSKE) on Aedes aegypti. The neem seed kernel powder was sequentially extracted with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, DMSO, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol and dstiledwater. Ten concentratons (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 50, 10.0,15.0 and 20.0%) of the neem extracts were used for the bioassays. Each treatment was replcated five times. Twenty-laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti pupae were exposed to each concentration Pupae were not fed durng the exposure periods. Pupal mortality was assessed after 1 and 24 hoursof exposure. The results of the effects of 1h exposure indicated decreased pupicidal mortality whdecreasing extracts toxicity thus: ethyl acetate (LC i l i . i . i it . i l i l l l 50 = 0.06%) > acetone > (LC50 = 0.29%) > benzene (LC50 = 0.82%) > hexane (LC50 = 3.13%) and propanol (LC50 = 763%). No pupal mortality was observed with extracts from Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, methanol and distilled water. The results of the effect of extract for 24h exposure indicated pupicidal mortality in2-propanol (LC50 = 0.67%) and ethanol (LC50 = 1.70%). No pupcida mortality was observed wth hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), methano and distiled water extracts. The ability of some neem extracts to kill Aedes pupae at relativey low concentrations presents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of mosquitoes. This techniqueis environmental friendly, biodegradable, less expensive, and locally available in mosquito endemicarea. Potentials for adoption in mosquito management programmes cannot be overemphasized.

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