There has been renewed interest in food security related issues in many developing nations. This revival is occasioned by the dramatic rise in food prices across the globe occasioned by increased global food demand, diminishing global food reserves, erratic weather patterns, increased cost of petroleum products and illegal land use among others. In Nigeria, several agricultural policies have been formulated to curtail food security challenges. Unfortunately, these policies have not yielded the desired results of increase food production. This paper, thus, explores the various challenges confronting food security in Nigeria with a view of highlighting the reasons that account for these problems. The paper also suggests ways of address these challenges and concludes by positing that the task of feeding the populace adequately constitutes an increasing challenge, requiring the coordinated efforts and interaction of food producers, transporters, market operators and a myriad of retailers.
It is axiomatic to posit that entrepreneurship is a major contributing factor to economic growth and development in any polity. However, entrepreneurial ability and leadership tend to be relative lacking in Nigeria as a result of many factors inhibiting affecting its growth and development. However, Nigeria still falls far short of the economic and social progress required to impact the well being of the average Nigerian given that over half of Nigeria’s population live on less than one dollar a day. Nigeria is also one of the top three countries in the world that have the largest population of poor people. In addition, Nigeria remains off track on achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including the goal of halving the number of people who live in extreme poverty The economic reforms have not been sufficient to reverse years of economic decline, deteriorating capacity, weakened institutions and inadequate infrastructure investment while the recent dramatic stock market decline and banking crisis, and the global economic crisis have accentuated the situation This paper investigates these factors militating factors against the development of entrepreneurship in Nigeria. It explores both theoretical and empirical literature as base for the study. Despite all the efforts of government, progress of entrepreneurs in Nigeria is still limited due to financial, infrastructure and business climate challenges. It can be logically correct to conclude from the above theses that these challenges still constitute obstacles to entrepreneurs in Nigeria and have not been surmounted.
Ever since the independence of Nigeria in 1960, scholars as well as developmental experts have sought to divulge the reasons for the nation’s protracted underdevelopment. These efforts gained momentum, following the oil boom of the 1970s, in which the nation boasted of having lots of money at its disposal to the extent that its problem became what to use the money for, yet there was no visible development or its indicators in the country. Most of the studies averred that corruption, tribalism and nepotism, an established system of mediocrity cum general administrative ineptitude account so much for the nation’s developmental catastrophe. This research work, though not completely denying the fact that the above mentioned issues in one way or the other contribute to the nation’s developmental crisis, contend that Nigeria’s developmental problems are inextricably intertwined with Census Politics as observed in the 2006 population census of the federation. Data generated from population census is among other things used in determining who gets what, when and why in the Nigerian federation. Consequently, there has been an unending drive towards inflation of census figures among Nigerian states, geared towards obtaining the advantages accruing from having higher population figures in the country. This scenario has created a situation of distributive imbalance and subsequently, injustice in the allocation of funds and other resources in the federation. It is observed from our study that the root cause of the jostle towards falsification of population census figures in Nigeria remains the inadequacies in the practices of revenue allocations in the country. The fact that considerable attention is being paid to generative capacity, as well as landmass among other principles has created and fortified the character of census that now obtains in the country and which was manifested in the 2006 population census. States with limited access to natural resources tend to see the population exercise as the only means available for them to bridge the gap created by absence and/ or inadequacy of natural resources. This accounts so much for the manipulation of the 2006 census figures in the country. As a result of high intrusion of politics in the 2006 population counts, there has been widespread discrepancy between revenue allocation to states and the call for its rejection.
Following the alarm raised by a coalition of civil society groups and professional bodies in the construction industry on the manufacturing and importation of poor quality cement into the country, the Standards Organisation of Nigeria (SON) recently convened and mandated a Technical Committee to formulate new standards for cement in the country. Though belated, this response to the alarm should help ensure that henceforth, only high quality cement that can guarantee the strength and safety of buildings is either produced or imported into the country. For some time now, the quality of cement sold in the country has been compromised at will, leaving unpleasant consequences such as frequent collapse of buildings across the country, with attendant loss of lives and property. There have been worrisome reports of different grades of sub-standard cement in the market, with consumers largely unaware that certain grades of cement were not suitable for housing construction. The use of law-grade cement probably contributed to the problem of collapsing buildings in the country. The loss of lives in the collapsed buildings could clearly have been avoided if proper quality standards had been set and enforced, and the people educated on the grade of cement to use for block making and house plastering. Nevertheless, it is good that SON has now taken necessary steps to formulate cement standards for Nigeria. This will help users of the product to establish the relationship between the quality of the cement that they use and the strength and safety of their buildings. We commend SON under the leadership of Dr. Joseph Odumodu for responding quickly to the alert raised by stakeholders in the construction industry. This paper addresses the challenges raised above and suggests that poor building practices are key to the problem of building collapse and that efforts to curb this problem would be beyond the scope of the Technical Committee alone but to all stakeholders. From these reviews and current development in the Nigerian cement industry in the last four months the paper concludes that with the availability of 32.5, 42.5 and 52.5 grade of cement in the country, it is high time for massive education of bricklayers and masons all over the country for them to know the right kind of cement for a given project and thus ensure safety of buildings.
Abstract. Over the years, there has been a running battle between the universalists and the relativists as to which stand is correct vis-à-vis the philosophical notions of knowledge and morality. Whereas for the universalists morality is universal, eternal, and unchanging, the relativists hold that man is the measure of all things and accordingly, that morality is relative to each individual and/or culture. The universalists contend that our idea of judgment and belief must have standards that they must meet independently of anyone’s propensity to accept it. The relativists built their philosophy on the foundation that there exists extreme variation in customs, manners, religions vis-à-vis different human societies, just as moral beliefs and attitudes of individuals are basically learnt from their own cultural environments. It is on the basis of the alleged absence of all-time and all-place valid standards of truth or morality that the universalists launched a devastating attack on the relativists, arguing that there would be neither moral progress nor any basis for scientifico-technological knowledge if everybody or culture is right about his or its belief or claim to knowledge. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to critically examine the philosophical concept of relativism within the context of knowledge, truth and morality. Through a thorough and critical analysis, the paper demonstrates the latent implications relativism portends for knowledge, the quest for authentic existence as well as social order. On the whole, the paper took a position that notwithstanding the obvious shortcomings of relativism, it has some rich and positive ingredients that could be exploited in our attempt to explore the nature of knowledge and truth, the search for authentic personal existence as well as social order.
Capital punishment is one of the basic issues in applied ethics. As a concept which bothers much on justice, it is also a critical issue in legal philosophy wherein it is examined under the umbrella of ‘corrective justice’. Although virtually every known human society has practised it at one time or the other in the course of its existence, its usefulness and effectiveness as an instrument for corrective justice is increasingly coming under serious attacks in this modern time. Capital punishment has generated debates which have raged on for over four hundred years. That capital punishment has been abolished in most of the industrialized countries of the world is a development that calls for sober reflection. The purpose of this work, therefore, is to examine some ethical issues involved in capital punishment, with a view to determining whether its continued practice can ever be justified in this modern time and, if so, under what circumstances. It also examines critically, the various points and arguments adduced by the existing schools of thought in defence of their respective positions.
Abstract. This work underscores the value of philosophy as a catalyst for both human and social development. It examines the relationship between philosophy and creativity as well as that between philosophy and national/societal development. Thereafter, it argues that the moral development of the people is a necessary though not a sufficient condition for socio-politico-economic cum scientific development to take place in a country. It discloses that prejudice, unfounded assumptions as well as over-emphasis on materialistic values are the major reasons for low patronage of philosophy by the public. After a thorough examination of the nature of philosophy and the inherent values and potentialities it has for the development of the individual and society, the paper goes on to conclude that until Nigerians realize that the goods of the mind are as important as the goods of the body, things may not really change for the better.
This paper examines the negative implications latent in paranormal beliefs and argues that these implications in turn impact negatively on both human and (social) national development. It carried out this task using politics, law, economy and medicine as its focal points. Furthermore, the paper reveals that in most cases belief tends to prove itself stronger than knowledge, adding that people are more inclined to die for what they believe in than what they know. It noted that notwithstanding the fact that there is yet to be a single instance of conclusively proven claims of the paranormal, the belief in paranormal phenomena still remains strong among the people and features prominently in both the media and film industry. While arguing that it is out of ignorance, desperation, poverty, gullibility and irrationalism that some people murder their fellow human beings for rituals, it concluded by noting that this pseudoscientific-oriented system of thought if not checked, portends a great danger for both the individual and the society at large.
INTRODUCTION Philosophy as the love for wisdom beams its searchlight towards every aspect of human endeavour where knowledge could be acquired. However, to effectively carry out this task, it is sub-divided into different branches, with each focusing on a given aspect of reality. These divisions or branches of philosophy include Epistemology, Logic, Ethics, Aesthetic, and Metaphysics, etc. This work, however, centres on the branch of philosophy known as metaphysics. The aim is to undergo an extensive exposition of the meaning, nature, scope, and relevance of metaphysics to man and society. Accordingly, our discourse on the subject is categorized in that order. Experience has shown that the majority of those who misconceive and dread philosophy do so mainly with regard to the metaphysics aspect of it. Their grouse with metaphysics is that for them metaphysics is synonymous with occultism and mysticism. Besides, they complain that metaphysics is rife with abstract and hair-splitting terms. Part of the aim of this work is, therefore, to demystify metaphysics by presenting it in the simplest manner such that every class of people in the society can read and comprehend it without the assistance of a professional philosopher. Apart from presenting a detailed explanation of the meaning of metaphysics, other issues such as the sub-divisions of metaphysics as well as the basic elements or fundamental questions of metaphysics were adequately treated. The work was concluded with a consideration of the relevance of metaphysics to man and society.
Abstract This paper examines the place of religion and religious pluralism in nation-building with Nigeria as its focal point. It ties the existence of many religions and the attendant claims to authenticity to the claims by some individuals to have had personal relations from God. The paper goes on to note that these unfounded claims to exclusive religious authenticity are the major cause of incessant religious crisis and wars in Nigeria. Furthermore, the paper attributes religious intolerance and crisis to ignorance, noting that all religions have a common source. Religion, the paper argues, is a two-edged sword with the propensity for good and bad. On the positive side, the paper observes that religion inculcates rich moral values in its adherents. These values act as catalysts for the positive transformation of the individuals and society at large. Conversely, it argues that controversial passages as contained in the scriptures of the various religions have resulted and may continue to result in doctrinal misinterpretations and misunderstanding among the adherents of varying religions. In conclusion, it notes that there are some good virtues that are associated with religion and religious pluralism that could be harnessed and utilized in our quest for a democratic nationhood.