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Human Loa Loa (Cobbold, 1864) (Filaroidea: Onchocercidae) Morbidity Distribution in Northern Enugu State, Nigeria: Implications for Onchocerciasis Control

By Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Summary

ABSTRACT
A cross-sectional epidem ological investigation was conducted in Nsukka senatorial zone of Nigeria to evaluate the use of specific clinical signs/symptoms in the assessment of the endemicity, prevalence and morbidity of Loa loa infection in areas meso-endemic for onchocerciasis, and to evaluate the results in respect of the probability of occurrence of adverse react ons, post-treatment with ivermectin in areas presumed to be hypo-, meso-, and hyper endemic for Loa loa infection and morbidity. Standard questionnaire based on the key clinical manifes ations of loias s were administered and the mic ofilaraemic levels of respondents determined at both community and individual levels. The results showed that the clinica symptoms/signs were known in all the study communities. Altogether 22.0% o respondents (n=1600) positively indicated having experienced either Loa loa infection and/ or Calabar swelling. Based on the quest onnaire indices, an intercommunity prevalence of 21.9% (range 17.50 - 27.50%) was establ shed An overall communi y medan microf araemia (mf) prevalence of 19.4% (range 15.0 - 26.3%) was also recorded. A microfilaraemia prevalence >20% was however established in >35% of the study communities indicating the possibility of adverse reaction after ivermectin administration. More males (n=203, 12.7%) than females (n=109, 6.8%) were microf araemic. Linear logistic regression indicated that Loa loa infection was significantly associated with age (adjusted odds rat o: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.14, p<0.001). The intercommuni y mean intensi y o i i t il i i t i i . t f microfilarial load varied (range 112 ± 25 – 205 ± 30).The best diagnostic performance was obta ned for reported history of L. loa w th a sensitivi y of 100% and a specifici y of 94.6%...
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