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Animal Research International

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A Publication of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Entries on Animal Research International

ABSTRACT:Information on the level to which commercial feeds and feed raw materials are involved in the dissemination o anti-microbial resistant pathogenic and commensal bacteria in Nigeria is necessary for feed and stock management. Forty four Escherichia coli isolates from 4 commercial feed brands coded SF, GF, TF and ACF and from 90 various feed raw materials such, f sh meal (FM), maize (MA), maize offal (MO), wheat offal (WO), spent grain (SG), blood meal (BM) and soybean meal (SM) etc were screened for anti-microbial resistance profile against 10 antibiotics using the d sc d fusion method. Overall, the isolates recorded 80.8 % resistance to cefuroxime, 76.9 % to nalidixic acid, 75 % to ampicillin, and 59 6 % to cotrimoxazole while very low 7 7 % was recorded for tetracycline and 5 8 % for gentamycin, ciprofloxacin and chloramphenicol. Across commercial feed brands, isolates from SF were resistant to nitrofurantoin (100 %), nalidixic acid (50 %) and ampicillin (70 %), while those from TF, GF and ACF were resistant to 7 6 and 5 antibiotics respectively. Resistance against ampicillin, nalidixic acid and cefuroxime, in isolates from SG, palm kernel cake (PK), MO and WO were high.

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The nutrient composition of fish has been established to vary with species and growing environment. Hence, the proximate composition and mineral contents of Schilbe mystus and Heterotis niloticus in Lake Alau were investigated to determine their nutritive value. A total of 10 fresh samples of each species obtained from fishermen catch (weight: 315.20 – 436.10 g) were separately stunted, de-gutted, washed, grounded and analyzed for moisture, crude protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate, calcium, iron, sodium, potassium and magnesium following standard procedures. Mean moisture (62.95 ± 1.97 %) and ash (2.40 ± 0.21 %) contents were higher in H. niloticus, while crude protein content (35.20 ± 1.48 %) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in S. mystus. Also, the fat content was significantly higher in H. niloticus (12.20 ± 1.08 %) than in S. mystus (3.97 ± 0.39 %). Carbohydrate value was higher (p>0.05) in S. mystus (2.20 ± 0.33 %) than in H. niloticus (1.85 ± 1.01 %). Values of iron (1.16 ± 0.35 %) and potassium (5.50 ± 0.50 %) were marginally higher in S. mystus, while sodium (85.10 ± 12.81 %) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in S. mystus. This study thus provides baseline information on the present nutritive status of the two freshwater finfish species in Lake Alau.

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ABSTRACTA comparative study on the internal and external parasites and the assoc ated changes in the packed cell volume of horses from a rural community (Bama) and an urban Centre (Maiduguri) in the semi-arid zone of North-eastern Nigeria was evaluated through routine clinical and laboratory examinations. Blood and external parasites were not encountered in any of the 18 horses. Four (22 2 %) of the horses were noticed to be shedding the ova o intestina parasites in their faeces during the study period. Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus (16.7 %) and strongy e (5.6 %) eggs were recovered from the horses. Infection was more common in rural (50 %) than urban (14.3 %) horses. In both locations, infected horses had higher Packed Cel Volume (PCV) (31.3 ± 5.3) than uninfected ones (30.4 ± 3.6). Irrespect ve of infec ion status, horses at Maiduguri had higher PCV than their counterparts at Bama. The results suggest that horses in the sem -arid zone o Northeastern N geria had moderately low prevalence of infection w th gastro-intestinal parasites and that those at the urban location were relatively better cared for than their rural counterparts.

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This study investigated the effects of the administration of methanolic leaf extract of Piper guineense on serum concentration of testosterone, cauda epididymal sperm reserves (CESR), gonadosomatic weights of the testes and epididymides as well as testicular histomorphology of male albino rats. Twenty four adult male rats of 12 weeks of age were used for the study. Commercial pelleted feed and water were provided ad libitum. The rats were randomly selected into 4 groups of six rats each designated A, B, C and D. Group A served as untreated control and received only distilled water; while groups B, C and D received 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaf extract of Piper guineense respectively for 30 days. Oral administration of the plant leaf extract was done every other day with the aid of orogastric cannula. There was no significant variation (p>0.05) in the mean serum testosterone concentration and cauda epididymal sperm reserves across the different groups. However, the mean gonadosomatic weights of the testes of the different treatment groups and the mean gonadosomatic weight of the epididymis of only group C (100 mg/kg body weight) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of the control. There was no obvious histomorphologic lesion in testes of the rats of the different groups. It was concluded that oral administration of methanolic seed extract of P. guineense at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight every other day for 30 days did not affect testosterone concentration, CESR and testicular histomorphology but caused an increase in the allometric weight of the testes.

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ABSTRACTStratification and livestock population census for Enugu Urban Nigeria, between February and Apri 2005 is described Based on ground reconnaissance, six strat ficat on zones ident ed for Enugu Urban (180 km i . i f l i i ifi 2) were, unplanned Village set-up (9.69 km2), H gh-density built-up areas (20.25 km2), Medium-density built-up areas (7.90 km2), Low-density built-up areas (9.50 km2), Commercial areas (26 44 km2) and Undeveloped lands/Farms (106.93 km2). About 46.63 km2 or 25.90 % of the stratified Enugu Urban was principal suburbs. Estimated l vestock population was achieved w th 91.70 % o 2927 households in 21 samp e blocks of about 8 34 Km2 or 17.88 % of the principal suburbs. Livestock population and average population density for stratified Enugu Urban were 32309 (179) for goats, 17027 (95) for sheep, 3765 (21) for p gs, 16152 (90) for dogs, 4338 (24) for cats, 108354 (602) for chickens, 28985 (161) for turkeys and 17160 (95) for ducks. The results of this study may be useful in the formulation of Veterinary, Livestock, Public and Environmental Health Policies, as well as for Livestock Diseases Surveillances, Research Communications and Bioinformatics. The model for this survey could also be adapted for other urban cities in Nigeria and the developing countr es of the world where there are no reliable livestock population statistics.

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ABSTRACTA questionnaire survey was employed to identify the sources of contact with parasites and disease vectors among people l ving in the Anambra River Basin Irrigation Project Area. The survey indicated that more than half o the inhabitants o this area go to farm. While in the farm disease vectors such as mosquitoes, biting midges, snails and tsetse flies are usually encountered. In addition, the lack of proper sewage disposal common among the communities exacerbates the situation. Water from various sources such as rivers ponds, streams, as well as rainwater are used for many purposes. Common disease symptoms such as diarrhoea, abdominal pain, blood in sputum, body nodules, blood in stool, coughing, itching, headache, fever, haematuria were commonly recorded. Positive relationships were observed between the presence of some vectors and the corresponding disease symptoms.

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Total of fifty eight isolates of Echinococcus granulosus were collected from human, sheep, goat and cattle origins and characterized using PCR-RFLP methods. The results indicated that the cosmopolitan sheep strain of E. granulosus is the most prevalent strain in Kirkuk, Iraq. The study furthermore, demonstrated that the form of Echinococcus that infect human in Kirkuk, Iraq is a sheep strain.

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ABSTRACT:The study was carried out to assess the susceptibility of two ind genous breeds of goat – the Red Sokoto (RS) and the West African Dwarf (WAD) goats to Haemonchus contortus infection by using the abomasa worm burden and the worm’s uterine egg count as the indices. One hundred (100) abomasa each from the RS and WAD s aughter goats were purchased from Nsukka Urban abattoir and Ibagwa rural abattoir for examinat on between October 2002 and Janaury 2003. The WAD goats had a sign ficant y higher worm burden (7286) than the Red Sokoto goats (4675) (P<0.01). The female-male ratio of the worms showed the RS goats with a higher female population ratio of 1:0:90 as against the 1:1:03 for WAD goats. 240 adult female worms, wh ch were randomly selected from each breed for the uterine egg count showed that the average uterine egg count was significant y higher in WAD goats (748.37) than in RS goats (620.50) (P<0.01). Both the worm and egg burdens exhibited a significant steady drop in both breeds from October 2002 to January 2003 (P<0.001). It is suggestive from this study that RS goats may be less susceptible to naturally acquired Haemonchus contortus infection than WAD goats.

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Mx proteins, found in many organisms including birds and mammals, are reported to show antiviral activity by inhibiting replication of various viruses. In the present study, 43 samples of conserved Gerze chicken from Gerze District Directorate of Agriculture and 50 samples of pure lines from Ankara Poultry Research Institute were examined for determining of allelic frequencies of reported as a marker loci related to resistance “NE-F2 and R2 / R” and “NE-F2 and R2 / S” using RsaI and SspI restriction endonucleases by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Allele frequencies of resistant (Mx+) and sensitive allele (Mx-) were found to be 98 and 2 % in Gerze chicken breed population respectively. Virus resistant allele (Mx+) was 52 % and sensitive allele (Mx-) frequency was 48 % in the pure line population. As a result of the study, Gerze chicken breed population was concluded as a valuable resource that could be used for disease resistance in chicken breeding.

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ABSTRACTA study of the helminth endo-parasites of Brachysynodontis batensoda, Hemisynodontis membranaceous, Synodontis gobroni, S. clarias, S. sorex, S. budgetti, S. xiphias, S. nigrita, S. filamentosus, S. eupterus, S. schall, and S. ocel ifer randomly sampled from commercial fishers was made in the lower reaches of Anambra river from March 2001 to February 2002. The helminth endo-parasites recovered were Sandon a sudanens s (Trematoda) Wenyon a synodont s, W youdeoweii, W. kainji (Cestoda) and Procamallanus laeviconchus (Nematoda). B. batensoda, S. clarias, S. eupterus, S. gobroni and S. ocellifer are new geographical records for W. synodontis, which appeared to be the most important endo-parasite of mochokids in terms of fishery management in the Anambra river. It infected more hosts than the other Wenyonia species put together or the other parasite species. The prevalence of all the endo-parasites was low (≤ 20 %). There were cases of mixed infection involving S. sudanensis and P. laeviconchus as well as Wenyonia species and P. laeviconchus but never between Wenyonia congeners. The habitat most preferred by S. sudanensis and Wenyonia species was the small intestine, whereas P. laeviconchus was found only in the stomach. Prevalence, mean intensity and abundance of all the endo-parasites were generally higher in the dry than in the rainy season. No visible damage or injury resulting from the endo-parasites was evident on parasitized fish.

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