Entries on Zoology
ABSTRACT The prevalence of Cysticercus bovis at Jos abattoir during post mortem examination conducted on Fourteen thousand three hundred and seventy two (14,372) slaughtered cattle over a period of two years (January 1997 – Dec. 1999), using evag nation method. Out of 14,372 carcasses examined 1924 (13.4 %) tested positive for C. bovis. The sites of the location of the larvae varied from one organ to another with the heart having the highest 48 (30.0 %) and the least affected were the visceral organs livers, lungs and esophagi. There is a positive correlation between the number of C. bovis cyst and the percentage frequency of the organ affected (P<0.05).
ABSTRACT: The mushroom flora and associated insect pests of mushrooms in Nsukka urban was studied. The abundance of mushrooms from sampled communit es is indica ed with the family, Agaricaceae predominating “out of home” environment yielded more mushrooms (4.62) than the homestead environment (3.26). Insect pests associated with different mushrooms were Megas ela aganic Musca domestica Pygmaephorous stercola Paychybolus ligulatus and Drosophilla melanogester among others.
ABSTRACT Prevalence of intestinal helminths infections among school children in Igbo-Eze South Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria were stud ed between July and December 2005 Significant differences (P < 0.05) were recorded among the 1,296 school chi dren (ages 4 – 15) randomly sampled and examined for intestina helminthes. The prevalence of intestinal helminths varied significantly among schools sampled (P < 0.05). Central Schoo , Ovoko had the highest percent prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides (9.3 %), hookworm (6.0 %) and Trichuris trichiura (2.3 %). The least per cent prevalence of A. lumbricoides was recorded in Community Primary School, Iheakpu-Awka (2.3 %), while the least per cent prevalence of hookworm occurred in Community Primary School 3 Itchi. T. trichiura was not recorded in community primary schools in Itchi, Unadu and Iheakpu-Awka. Similarly, the prevalence of these parasitic helminths varied signi icantly among the age groups (P < 0 05), with age groups 4 – 6 highly infected w th A. lumbricoides (7.0 %), 13 – 15 w h hookworm (3.7 %) and 7 – 9 w th T. tr chiura (1.2 %). T. tr chiura was absent in stool samp es of 4 – 6 and 13 – 15 age groups. The prevalence of these intestinal parasites also varied significantly between the sexes with fema es having comparatively more A. lumbricoides (5.4 %), hookworm (3.2 %) and T. trichiura (0.8 %) than males. Our study indicated that intestinal helminthiasis was prevalent in the area, and as such, control measures such as chemo herapy, provision o adequate sanitary facil ties and potable drinking water, improved personal hygiene and health educa ion should be the focus of non-governmental and governmental health institutions in Nigeria.
ABSTRACT The aetiology and epidemiology of African trypanosomiasis in bovine species are comprehensively presented. In addition, a critical review o the history and transmission of the disease is exhaustively discussed. The mystery of other epizootiological factors associated with bovine trypanosomiasis is highlighted. Four major elements were identif ed as important in the epizootiology of African animal trypanosomiasis namely the trypanosome, the tsetse f y the mammalian host and the environmental factors. It was concluded that the phenomenon of high rate of resistance referred to as trypanosotolerance has genetic correspondence.
ABSTRACT: Trypanosomiasis is of great interest to farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a disease that retards agricultural development in general and needs urgent atten ion. It has been noted that it causes aneamia in its host which often may lead to death. Many researches showed that dietary supplement can enhance trypanotolerance in various hosts. Diet is important in modulating the severity of its pathophysiological ef ects and can also influence the rate of recovery. Using a control diet (Diet 1)) was only chicks’ mash. this research was conducted to determine the effect of moderate protein (mixture of 250 g of corn meal, 240 g of soyabean meal and 10 g of crayfish meal in chicks’ marsh (Diet 2)), high dietary protein (mixture o 400 g o caseinogen and 300 g o soyabean meal in chicks’ mash (Diet 3)) and high dietary carbohydrate (mixture of 400 g of dextrose and 300 g of corn meal in chicks’ mash (Diet 4)) supplementat on on rodent trypanomias s. D et 1 was used to feed rats in Cage A Diet 2 was used to feed rats in Cage B Diet 3 was used to feed rats in Cage C while Diet 4 was used to feed rats in Cage D. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats fed with Diet 2 (moderate protein diet) had the highest and significantly different (P < 0 05) red blood cell count than other treatments. This indicated that adequate nutrition reduces the effect of trypanosome and hence trypanotolerance in rats since trypanosome is known to attack red blood cells and vascular endothelium.
ABSTRACT The performance response and egg qualities o laying birds fed enzyme supplemented PKC diets as replacement for maize was investigated w th 210, 20 week old lay ng pullets of Dominant Black strain at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria. The birds which ust come into lay were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups of 30 each in three replicates. The experiment was conducted for 11 weeks. Dietary treatments significantly (p<0.05) affected feed intake, Hen day percent, Egg weight, Feed efficiency (Kg feed: Kg eggs) and cost o feed per egg Final l ve weight and body weight gains at end of the experiment were similar (p<0.05) among treatments. On egg qualities, only Haugh unit was significant y (p<0.05) improved with increased level of PKC which appeared to be better as rate of enzyme supplementation increases. The differences observed in the experiment on performance parameters appeared not to have established a consistence trend to strongly assert a conclusion but are indicative of the possibility o replacing maize with PKC in a laying birds diet up to 40 % when supplemented with Hemicell l f f ® enzyme. Other enzyme application methods may be investigated to see if better performance response trend can be achieved.
ABSTRACT The Amino acid dynamics in urine samples of Schistosoma haematobium patients were studied The study was to evaluate the possibility and validity of using amino acid patterns recorded in highly, lightly and uninfected urines as diagnostic tool for rapid screening of Schistosomiasis Paper chromatography was used to separate the different amino acids in the urine samples. The chromatographic method used in this study revealed the existence of 9 essential and 7 non essential amino acids in the urine samples. It equally showed that histidine, glutamine, serine and proline were absent in all the urine samples. Furthermore the presence of two marker amino acids can be used to identify individuals with heavy infection (cystein) and no infection (methionine).
ABSTRACT: A reassessment of the prevalence of onchocerciasis was carried out in Etteh community in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area of Enugu state, Nigeria. The community has been known to be highly endemic for onchocerciasis. The assessment of endemicity was based on Rapid Assessment Method (RAM), which involved the use of two onchocercal indices namely the presence of palpable nodules and depigmentation (Leopard skin). Out o the 716 individuals examined consisting of 327 males and 389 females, the overal prevalence of palpable onchocercal nodules was 51.4%. The females had insignificant y (P>0.05) higher rate of onchocercomata (51.9%) than males (44.0%). The anatomical distribution of nodules in descending order of occurrence was pelvic reg on (26.3%), head and neck reg on (20.6%), thorax and lumbar (15.7%), upper limbs (14.5%), lower limbs (12.4%) and others (abdomen and shoulders, 5.9%). It is obvious that in spite of the decade-long annual free distribution of Mectizan in the area, onchocerciasis prevalence is still high.
ABSTRACT: The study of antipsychotic ef ect of the aqueous stem bark extract of Amblygonocarpus andongensis was carried out on amphetamine induced psychosis in 42 Wister albino rats weighing between 105 and 305 2g using two indices feeding and locomotor activity. Twelve out of the 42 rats were divided into two groups; six per group. Group 1 and 2 received 1 5mg/kg body weight o oral amphetamine. Oral chlorpromazine (0.5mg/kg) was administered to group 2 rats in addit on The remaining 30 rats were divided in o 5 groups: A, B, C, D and E, each group comprised 6 rats. All the groups received 1 5 mg/kg body weight of amphetamine but E received 0 5mg/kg oral chlorpromazine in add t on. However, B, C and D received 450, 900 and 1350mg/kg bodywe ght of Amblygonocarpus andongensis aqueous stem bark extract. Feeding and locomotor activities were measured in groups 1 and 2 and A, B, C, D and E rats respectively. The result showed that there were significant dif erences in feeding and locomotor parameters between groups 1 and 2 and among groups A, B, C and E (p<0.05) except group E. In amphetamine psychotic model test, group 2 animals have reduced feeding and locomotor activity as compared to group 1. Conclusively, Amblygonocarpus andongensis has a dose dependent reducing effect on feeding and locomotor activity at 135mg/kg body we ght as compared to chlorpromazine (0.5mg/kg) in amphetamine induced psychosis in Wister albino rats. Hence i . i both Amblygonocarpus i f . and chlorpromazine may have pharmacokinetic effect on amphetamine and therefore maybe used to treat psychosis induced by amphetamine.
ABSTRACT: A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and significance of haemoparasite of camels slaughtered in Maiduguri abattoir. Blood samples were collec ed asept cally from camels before slaughter noting age and sex of animals. The samples were processed for packed cell volume (PCV) and thin smear stained with Geimsa stain according to standard procedure. An overall prevalence of 14.2 % (n = 16) of the 113 animals examined was recorded in th s study Theileria camel ensis was most prevalent (n = 9 or 8.0 %) fo lowed by Trypanosoma evansi (n = 4 or 3.5 %) and mix infection with both T. evansi and T. camellensis (n = 3 or 2.7 %). There was no significan difference (P>0.05) between male and female camels, however, there was signi icant difference between young and adult camels (P < 0.05) using student t-test at 95 % confidence interval. All the parasites seen in this study significantly (P < 0.01) affec ed the packed cell volume of the animals when compared to PCV of non infected animals. The haemogram shows marked macrocytic normochromic cells. Further work on the pathogenesis and effects of haemoparasites of camel is required. This is the first report of haemoparasites of camel in this region of Nigeria.
ABSTRACT The healing effect of natural honey was evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model. Unpurified honey was used to treat burns inflicted on the experimental rats. The healing effects o the honey were compared to that of dermazine, honey-dermazine mixture, and methyla ed spirit. The burns healing agents all shown a progressive decrease in the wound, the healing effect of honey was more than any of the other agents used, w th 100% healed in he 15th day, dermazine atta ned 100% by 21st day, indicating that natural honey has healing property than formulated dermazine, methylated spirit gives 61% by 21st day...
ABSTRACT A survey of gut parasites of rodents was undertaken in Nsukka ecological zone. Out of the 87 rodents caught and examined, 47 (54.0%) were positive for helminth parasites. The prevalence rates for the various rodents examined were 60.0% for Xerus erythropus (squirrels); 59.3% for Cricetomy sp. (giant rats) and 48.9% for Rattus rattus (house rats). The difference in prevalence rates amongst the rodents was statistically insignif cant (P>0.05). The parasites isolated were 2 Cestode species- Hymenolepis sp (17 2%) and Raillietina sp; 3 nematode species- Trichuris muris (9.2%),, Ascaris sp (2.3%), Cyathostomum sp (4.6%) and one Acanthocephalan- Moniliformis morniliformis.(6.9%).