Entries on Sociology
ABSTRACT: The Igala worldview emphasizes life, death and life after death. The Igala hold firmly that the dead are not dead. They live in an immortal world where they advocate for the living. The Igala believe that the dead who are now the ancestors can reincarnate and are born again as babies, or may return to the world as masked spirits or incarnate beings. The Akwubaliba incarnate being is one of numerous incarnate beings in Igalaland. In Igala culture, incarnate beings are sacred and sacrosanct. They serve several functions one of which is social control. The Akwubaliba which means locust are young masked spirits or incarnate beings between the ages of ten to thirteen years. The Akwubaliba incarnate beings may number up to two hundred or more. Their appearance usually sends mothers and barren women into different types of psychological and emotional states. The essence of this paper is to explore the reasons for these two groups of women’s emotional and psychological states during the outing of these young incarnate beings and the impact of such emotional and psychological states on the society.
ABSTRACT: A modest acquaintance with the history of colonialism in Nigeria will show that from the onset it had provoked resistance from the citizens. Colonialism nullified dissent and political freedom hence it aroused attack from not just the politicians but also trade unionists who remained steadfast and unbowed all through the period it lasted. The various labour crises during our period of study, though economic in outlook had some political undertone; a rejection of the colonial system .The Trade Union Ordinance was one of the measures employed by the colonial authorities to whittle labour from de-colonization process. Labour leaders were also incarcerated to intimidate them from joining forces with the nationalist movement. Although there is a growing literature on labour movement, it does not seem to have sufficiently addressed labour’s role towards the attainment of independence. This paper intends not only to interrogate such a role but to also put it in historical perspective so as to fill the noticed gap. Since the topic cuts across other disciplines such as political science, economics, sociology, public administration etc, the paper used inter – disciplinary approach for self-enrichment. It affirms that there was a synergy between nationalists and labour which gave rise to independence in 1960. It also avers that while the 1945 General Strike sowed the seed of labour independence struggle the blood of the colliery workers stain in 1949 watered it into fruition .From 1945 through 1960 witnessed a combative nationalism and aggressive labour activism which wrestled power from the colonial rulers on October 1, 1960.
Abstract Some studies assert with evidence that the concept of a supreme God is foreign to Igbo pre-missionary contact religious thoughts. They mostly point to western influences on such a “supremacy” concept in both the minds of the early observers of the Igbo and in the Igbo themselves who had been either proselytized or swayed by the proselytization of Christianity, consciously or not. Other scholars confirm the presence of a supreme God in Igbo religious thoughts. Using Georg Hegel’s Dialectic and Uzodinma Nwala’s Radical Interpenetration as theoretical framework, this work presents both views, collecting data through documentary evidence of ethnographic reports and closely examining the perspectives of ethnographic reports in pursuit of any undeniable proof of the existence and extent of structure and popularity of the concept of supreme deification in Igbo thoughts. The evolution of Igbo traditional religious systems catalyzed by migrant knowledge and the adoption and syncretization of the appurtenances of outside cultures were investigated. The researchers came to the deduction that for the pre-Aro adult Igbo, the definition of supreme Deity is different from western thinking today in that a supreme Deity is particularistic or universal in a decentralized form for a given Igbo clan and from the viewpoint of that clan, the deity is the highest among gods in the world (where “world” meant a smaller sphere than is seen today). Before Aro, then, many politically acephalous Igbo clans attributed supremacy to Ani, the Earth deity. Ani was popularized by the pre-missionary contact Nri (500BC -1500AD) who came from the east (Igala-Jukun-Hamito-Semitic cultures) with Chukwu (as a concept, not name)...
ABSTRACT This paper explores the origins and history of minstrelsy through to Igbo minstrelsy in the world. Then it settles down to ferret out the nature of Igbo minstrelsy today, given that the advent of western music and the effects of colonization have turned it around to no ends. The purpose of getting at the heart of its nature is to provide salvific paradigms for its resurrection from the doldrums of oblivion. With the heavy western popular music of Nigeria today, the study becomes very expedient as a drive towards preserving an aspect of Igbo culture which brings to the fore the art of pathfinding, social criticism and valve for public opinion, especially against leaders who are not attuned to taking advice from those they govern. The method of data collection is secondary documentary evidence, with a view to bringing out articles which have investigated through field research the minstrelsy of the past, knowing that such investigations today would be marred by confabulations and social changes. Recommendations are given for the restoration of Igbo minstrelsy to its popular position, and then a conditional forecast is made in the last sentence of the conclusion.
Abstract This study investigated the impact of violent conflict on the emotional adjustment of children in Nigeria. Two groups of participants were involved. The first group was sixteen children from Co- educational Secondary School in Nsukka, Enugu State (8 boys and 8 girls). Twelve of these were (12-14) years, with a mean age of 13 years while the other four were two boys and two girls, age (14-16) years, with a mean age of 15 years. This group provided the preliminary information on their emotional feelings of violent conflict. The second group was 200 secondary school students from Co-educational(Urban)Secondary School in Enugu, randomly sampled on equal gender sample from junior secondary three (JSS 3, age 13-15) years and senior secondary three (SSS 3, age 16-18) years with mean age of 14 years and 17 years respectively. The results showed that there was significant relationship between violent conflict and emotional adjustment of children r=.88 P<.001.
ABSTRACT Literary artists have, over the years, used literature to mirror the society in which they live. These artists are not just concerned with man’s relationship with the environment in which he lives. What happens to the wild life in the bush and the fishes of the sea and the sea in which they live and what happens to the birds of the air and even the free air in which they fly are of great concern to the artist especially as these ecological conditions affect man and the general peace of the environments .This study examines the effect the environment has on Riverine Poetry. In every aspect of life, you attribute certain qualities of a man, certain behavioral patterns, and certain modes of perception to the environment. When related to literature, certain innate qualities of literature of a place are affected by that environment. In other words, one can just see the prevalent issue of environmental degradation, human right violation, abuse of power, and how these factors affect the life and destiny of the people in the affected communities. This study, therefore, examines riverine poetry and how the poets and the poems are affected by the environment.
ABSTRACT This paper is motivated by the apparent paucity of female playwrights in Nigeria. For more than three decades studies in dramatic literature, especially as it relates to women, revolved around only two female playwrights – Zulu Sofola and Tess Onwueme. The concern of this paper, therefore, is to discover if indeed there are only two female playwrights in Nigeria, why it has to take so long for female playwrights to emerge, what motivated their emergence, how their emergence impacted dramatic literature and criticism. The paper, consequently, is divided into three main sections each designed to address a set of the questions that drive this investigation. First part of the work is titled “Paucity of Female Playwrights” and the objective is to query the slow emergence of women in the field of playwriting, coming as they did, behind men writing in the same genre and women who are writing in other genres of literature. The statistics furnished by G. I. Achufusi is used to authenticate claims. The second part, titled “Poor Image of Women”, looks at how the negative image of women in plays written by men has generated a lot of debate by the gender- sensitive critics, and acted as motive for the emergence of female playwrights. The third part, titled “Image of women in Women’s Writing” accesses the work of the emergent female playwrights to ascertain how far they differ or comply with the existing image of women in men’s writing.
Abstract: This paper is geared towards the understanding of socio-economic globalization in Nigeria. The research reveals globalization as a form of freedom and ability of individuals to imitate voluntary economic transactions with residents in other countries. It showcases socio-economic globalization as promotion of free market, ruthless competition, privatization of public enterprises, and maximization of profits mostly by companies from developed countries. The socio-economic globalization informs open borders, weakening of state powers, deregulation and trade liberation. The developed nations behind socio-economic globalization of the world are not seeking to uphold the dignity of all the members of the world community. Neither are they seeking to maintain and balance the interest of the members of the global village. The research further reveals that proponents and sponsors of socio-economic globalization aim at integrating local economies into the global market system, to ensure economic progress that would benefit developed and developing countries, consumers and producers. The Christian religious responses insist that religious life cannot be absolutely separated from the economic life of the people in general. The divine socio-economic principle is based on organized care that takes into consideration the status of the poor and the rich in the community. The church as agent of divine socio-economic integration challenges the world to provide alternative economic model capable of addressing the situations of the poor and the marginalized in the global community.
ABSTRACT: The Aro sub- culture group of the Nigeria no doubt played important role in pre-colonial period as oracular agents woven in slave trade. They were mainly slave merchants whose oracle played the role of a spiritual conduit through which its unsuspecting client were sold into slavery. In other words, this dreaded oracle, Ibinu-Ukpabi, also known as the long juju, which is situated at Arochukwu played the dastardly role of sending those who appeared before it but could not pay themselves through for freedom into slavery. Ironically, during the hey-days of the British colonial activities, the activities of the aro became elevated by the simple omission of historical facts to the status of an Igbo civilization. By this simple act of omission, the Aro soon assumed the status of a superior socio-political cast among the Igbo. This obvious misrepresentation was to lead to a stream of intellectual controversy among Igbo scholars and local political partisans. This resulting controversy which was originally rooted in C.G. Seligman’s hamitic hypothesis, was expounded by a notable colonial anthropologist - - H.F. Mathews and later appropriated by succeeding Igbo scholars of Aro school of thought. It borders on the claim of indigenous pre- colonial imperialism over the rest Igbo group by the Aro. The present work explores the facts, myths and probabilities of this concept of a racially superior branch of the Igbo culture group as represented by the Nri and Aro. In the process of exploring the evidence, a number of dependent historical and hypothetical question were raised. This is primary query which will most probably strike the mind in the context of primeval Igbo origins and identity? In other words...
Abstract: Different aspects of Igbo culture, especially fashion have been in a state of flux since the colonial times. Much of what constituted the ancient Igbo material culture could not survive the colonial period. For instance, traditional Igbo fashion which promoted nudity, body ornamentation, title regalia and decorative hairdos among others have been somewhat eroded by foreign influences. Though handful of scholars and artists have prolonged the memories of some fashion items or style through their literary and creative works, greater percentage of the younger generation of the Igbo seem completely ignorant of the forms and functions of what should have been Igbo cultural heritage. The contemporary voguish fashion of the Igbos is patterned after western styles. This paper not only exhumes some outmoded Igbo fashion but also attempts a succinct comparative analysis of forms and significances of the early colonial period and the twenty-first century Igbo fashion. This is done in order to briefly highlight the formal and functional distinctiveness of the two modes as well as the changes in fashion and struggles over identity in Igboland.
Before the advent of Christianity in Ekpedo, the people had their own ways of life which were valued and respected. But since the advent of Christianity and Western education, the society has been more complex. There has been a great intensification of modern influence on the society and it has been observed that the white man’s or foreign political, religious, social and economic organizations and other factors have shaken the foundation of traditional community life. These factors have led to the wide spread of disintegration of bonds and sanctions of the society (Mair, 1969).