Entries on Public Health
ABSTRACT Prevalence of intestinal helminths infections among school children in Igbo-Eze South Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria were stud ed between July and December 2005 Significant differences (P < 0.05) were recorded among the 1,296 school chi dren (ages 4 – 15) randomly sampled and examined for intestina helminthes. The prevalence of intestinal helminths varied significantly among schools sampled (P < 0.05). Central Schoo , Ovoko had the highest percent prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides (9.3 %), hookworm (6.0 %) and Trichuris trichiura (2.3 %). The least per cent prevalence of A. lumbricoides was recorded in Community Primary School, Iheakpu-Awka (2.3 %), while the least per cent prevalence of hookworm occurred in Community Primary School 3 Itchi. T. trichiura was not recorded in community primary schools in Itchi, Unadu and Iheakpu-Awka. Similarly, the prevalence of these parasitic helminths varied signi icantly among the age groups (P < 0 05), with age groups 4 – 6 highly infected w th A. lumbricoides (7.0 %), 13 – 15 w h hookworm (3.7 %) and 7 – 9 w th T. tr chiura (1.2 %). T. tr chiura was absent in stool samp es of 4 – 6 and 13 – 15 age groups. The prevalence of these intestinal parasites also varied significantly between the sexes with fema es having comparatively more A. lumbricoides (5.4 %), hookworm (3.2 %) and T. trichiura (0.8 %) than males. Our study indicated that intestinal helminthiasis was prevalent in the area, and as such, control measures such as chemo herapy, provision o adequate sanitary facil ties and potable drinking water, improved personal hygiene and health educa ion should be the focus of non-governmental and governmental health institutions in Nigeria.
ABSTRACT The Amino acid dynamics in urine samples of Schistosoma haematobium patients were studied The study was to evaluate the possibility and validity of using amino acid patterns recorded in highly, lightly and uninfected urines as diagnostic tool for rapid screening of Schistosomiasis Paper chromatography was used to separate the different amino acids in the urine samples. The chromatographic method used in this study revealed the existence of 9 essential and 7 non essential amino acids in the urine samples. It equally showed that histidine, glutamine, serine and proline were absent in all the urine samples. Furthermore the presence of two marker amino acids can be used to identify individuals with heavy infection (cystein) and no infection (methionine).
ABSTRACT A research to investigate the prevalence of urinary tract infections in sexually active women (18 – 41 years) from selected health care centres in Abakaliki was carried out. Attempt was made to fined out the number of treated cases, aetiologic agents and age range with highest inc dence o urinary tract infections over the study period (2004 – 2005). Medical records of urinary tract infected women from the selected health care centres were reviewed. The prevalence of urinary tract infections was high (1232) among the study group and Escherichia coli was implicated as the principal causative agent of these infections. The high prevalence recorded in this study makes it necessary for women to be adequately educated on matters affecting their reproductive health. There is also the need for government of the state to provide improved, adequate and affordable health care services in the communities.
A STUDY ABOUT THE CO-INFECTION OF MALARIA AND TYPHOID FEVER IN A TROPICAL COMMUNITY.
The length-weight relatonship and condition factor of four mormyrid species namely Mormyrus rume, Hyperopisus bebe, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Gnathonemus petersii from Anambra river were investigated from October 2002 to March 2004. In al400 species M. rume, 384 H. bebe417 C. tamandua and 335 G. petersii were sampled for the study Length-weigh relationship showed that the exponent “b,’ were 3.067, 2.459, 3.201 and 3.114 for M. rume, H. bebe, C. tamandua and G. petersii respectively. The mormyrid species studied with exception of H. bebe exhibited isometric growth and the correlation coefficients were positive and highly sgnificant (P < 0.05). The condtion factor (k) varied from 0.69 ± 0.22 in G. petersii to 1.17 ± 0.59 in M. rume. There were no significant difference in the mean condition facor between themales and females inall the mormyrid species. The importance of condition factor in the breeding activities o the mormyrid species revealed that not much energy s diverted into gonad synthesis and maturation during the breeding cycle season.
Plasmodium infection in man is caused by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. This results in the disease, malaria. Malaria has serious debilitating effects on man. It adversely affectsman’s health, strength and productivity. Here, a review of Plasmodium infection in man including the life cycle transmisson, immunity, symptoms, diagnosis, pathology, prevention, control and treatment is given. Only by knowing about Plasmodium infection, the burden of infection on man and the prevention and control options can we understand the disease better and so be better prepare for the future management of this disease.
The research was carried out to evaluate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of Cassia occdentials. Cassia leaves were collected from Kacha town in Niger State and extracted using methano, hexane, chloroform and water extraction methods. Serial concentrations: 50 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 % methanol, hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts were prepared and sterilized. The bacterial isolates used; E. coli, P. multocida, S. typhi, S. typhimurium, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae were authenticated using biochemical and serological methods. The suspenson (0.5) of each bacterial isolate was prepared in isotonic sodium chloride. The disc agar diffusion method was performed on 70 Mueller-Hinton agar pates, 10 per microorganism , using serial diffusion concentraton: 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 mg o hexane, methanol, chloroform and water. The results showed that all the extracts of Cassia occidentalis have antimicrobial activity on E col at concentrations between 900 – 1000 mg. E. coli was most susceptible to hexane extract at concentration ranges between 500 – 1000 mg, there was no antimicrobial activity exhibited against the other tested microorganisms Phytochemical analyses showed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponin, glycoside and flavonoid, steroid was absent.
Two months preliminary survey of the prevalence of diarrhoea among children (aged 5 – 10 years) was carried out in Nsukka area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on the demographic details of the parents and children, prevalence, management and control of diarrhoea among children of this age group. These were distributed to parents of the children used for the study. Using Pearson's correlation coefficient, we found that diarrhoea among children of this age was neither correlated with residential location (r = -0.47, p = 0.652), occupation of the parent (r = 0.134, p = 0.194) nor sex of the child (r = 0.092, p = 0.377). However, the educational level of the parents was correlated with childhood diarrhoea (r = 0.346, p = 0.001). These results suggested that the children of less educated people were more prone to diarrhoeal infection when compared to children of the more educated counterparts.
Parasitic infections are of great public health importance because of their high prevalence and effects on both nutritional health and immune status of people living in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Five types of vegetable samples such as tomatoes, (Solanium iycapersicum), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), carrot (Daucus carota), cabbage (Brassica olerecea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), were investigated for parasites using sedimentation and floatation methods. Out of 430 samples of the vegetables screened, 258(60%) were found to be contaminated with helminth ova/larvae and protozoan cysts. Ova/larvae of Ascaris lumbricoides 23(20.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis 32(28.3%, Trichuris trichuria 21(18.6%), hookworm 28(24.8%) and Fasciola species 6(5.3%) were identified. Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm were the most encountered with prevalent rates of 28.3% and 24.8%, respectively, while the protozoan cysts recovered were those of Entamoeba histolytica 3(2.7%). Among the vegetables, lettuce 36(28.6%) was the most contaminated while cucumber 14(11.1%) had the least contamination. The results of this study implicated salad vegetables in the transmission of intestinal parasites. It is therefore imperative that the sanitary condition of these vegetables be improved from the producers down to the consumers.
Plasmodium causes malaria in humans. Malaria parasites (Plasmodium) are parasitic protozoan belonging to the sub-class, coccidia, and family, Plasmodiidae (Smyth, 1996). The female Anopheles gambiae mosquito is responsible for transmitting Plasmodium parasites.
Malaria control is a major challenge in many endemic countries including Nigeria; implementation of evidenced-based control strategies is therefore needful in the sustainability of malaria control programme. Across-sectional study was designed to investigate perception of two communities in Oyo state using pre-tested structured questionnaire. Of 500 people enrolled for the study, Ninety six percent of respondents reported to have heard of malaria. Though majority reported mosquito as major transmitter of the infection but only 22.6% has adequate knowledge of the correct transmission route. Misconception about the causative agent of malaria is high, only 13.2% mentioned Plasmodium species as the causative agent. The knowledge about the ecology of mosquito was greatly applauded in the study area. Health-seeking behaviors and possession of insecticidal treated bet net were found to be associated with socio-economic status of individual. In spite of the high knowledge about malaria demonstrated in this study, some misconceptions about transmission and symptom still exist. The need to improve the spreading of information about malaria through rural dispensaries and primary health centres is essential for resounding success to be recorded.