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Nigeria

Nigeria

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Human Cost of Communal Conflicts in Nigeria: A Case of Ezillo and Ezza-Ezillo Conflicts of Ebonyi State, (2008- 2010)

Human Cost of Communal Conflicts in Nigeria: A Case of Ezillo and Ezza-Ezillo Conflicts of Ebonyi State, (2008- 2010)

Uploaded by Okechukwu Eme

There is scarcely any community in Nigeria which has not been involved in boundary and communal disputes. Boundaries are made for human beings and should therefore be made for human convenience and not conflicts. However, boundary issues in our society today are treated as matters of life and death. Family/boundary and communal conflicts in Nigeria are as result of competition over access to land and other natural resources in different parts of the country. Most of these conflicts are unnecessary in that they can be resolved if the groups in conflict wish to find a solution. There are some traditional institutions to settle disputes and resolve conflict, but they are facing unprecedented challenges and quite new types of issue. The Ezza-Ezillo communal conflict presents these challenges and issues. Prolonged land dispute between the communities led to the loss of 150 lives in 2010 forcing the state government to sack everybody from the disputed land bringing relative peace to the area. Children between the ages of three to five and women were among the victims of the attack and the head of crimes of a police station was also killed. This study discusses the human cost of communal conflict in Ebonyi State between 2008-2010. to achieve this objective, the first and second sections of the paper addresses conceptual and theoretical issues. The next segment explores the major causes of communal conflicts by drawing inferences from order case studies. The final part offers recommendations and concludes the paper.

 
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Global Economic Crisis and Joblessness in Nigeria’s Banking Industry: Agenda for the Future

Global Economic Crisis and Joblessness in Nigeria’s Banking Industry: Agenda for the Future

Uploaded by Okechukwu Eme

Axiomatic to posit that the banking sector in Nigeria is yearning for better, skills to reduce distress, and further drive the economy. In recent times, the industry has been bugged by recession, occasioned by mismanagement of funds, inability to adhere to ethical standards, employment of below- average workers, and misplacement of priorities. Many banks have ventured into areas where they lacked the required competence, and, in the process, made traditional, or deposit banking to suffer. One of the major fallouts of this misplacement of priorities is the current pendulum swinging against shareholders as they lose their in vestments, relevance, appeals and contacts to the market. These have occasioned the current job losses in the sector. This article seeks to address the impacts of the economic meltdown on the banking sector and the current job losses triggered by the down turn. The paper concludes by positing that there is a need to redefine the roles banks play in an economy through effective risk management.

 
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Food Insecurity in Nigeria: A Thematic Exposition

Food Insecurity in Nigeria: A Thematic Exposition

Uploaded by Okechukwu Eme

Agriculture has remained an important aspect of any economy. Viable agricultural programmes and activities in any polity are capable of sustaining the food supply and reserves needed for the welfare of the citizens. But in Nigeria, Agriculture is despised as able bodied young people do not have interest in Agriculture. Climate change and clashes between herdsmen and farmers and the activities of Boko Haram sect have added to food insecurity challenges in the polity as population displacement, death, and non-cultivation of farmlands and the burning down of farm produce have reduced the quality and quantity of food demand. Although the Federal Government had assured Nigerians that the fear over imminent food crisis in 2013 was unfounded, many Nigerians, especially concerned stakeholders, are not persuaded that the means and ways being devised by government at all levels can possibly address the challenge. This paper addresses the causes and consequences of these challenges and concludes by positing that without addressing these challenges, food insecurity will persist in Nigeria for a long time.

 
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Federalism and Nation Building in Nigeria

Federalism and Nation Building in Nigeria

Uploaded by Okechukwu Eme

Nigeria is at crossroads. It is beset with crises of nation-building and development, triggered by its refusal to confront the national question germane to its survival as a plural country. The paper sets out to find out how federalism in Nigeria has helped in Nation building or national integration. It is important to note that Nigerian federalism has achieved a great deal in winning for the political system, the loyalty and commitment of its subjects. In spite of the formal separations, the states and the nation have shared functions of government. the federal grants to states have encouraged cooperative practices. Another area of cooperation, is the political integration of states and nation in critical policy making points-The National Assembly, the Senate and House of Representatives. It is important to point out that there has been areas of continuing tension between the National government and States- derivation principles as it affects oil producing areas and Sharia laws as it affects the Nation and Sharia States. Above all the impact of these dual loyalties, the performance of national tasks, but with necessary attention to State interests and loyalties are essential ingredients in nation building and national integration.

 
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Executive-Legislature Feud in Nigeria: An Examination of Service Chiefs Confirmation, 1999-2014

Executive-Legislature Feud in Nigeria: An Examination of Service Chiefs Confirmation, 1999-2014

Uploaded by Okechukwu Eme

Until not very long ago, the literature on legislative-executive relations was bifurcated. It had evolved into two separate and independent bodies of work. One thesis focused on parliamentary and the other on presidential systems, which were considered to represent two completely independent and alternative ways to organize the political world. Today a more integrated view of executive-legislative relations in democratic regimes exists. The emergence of this new perspective owes a great deal to the appearance of two seminal books, which, perhaps in a way unintended by the authors, questioned the premises upon which the bifurcated view of parliamentary democracy and presidential democracy rested. Kaare Strom’s Minority Government and Majority Rule (1990) demolished on empirical and theoretical grounds the basic officeseeking assumption that informed studies of parliamentarism. John Huber’s Rationalizing Parliament (1996), in turn, questioned the appropriateness of the conflict model at the root of most thinking about executive-legislative relations in democracies. The specific contribution of each of these authors may be traced to studies of legislative politics that focused on the United States of America congress. As a consequence of these shifts, legislative organization came to the forefront of analyses of executive-legislative relations. In Nigeria, since the transition to civilian rule in May 29, 1999, the country has witnessed conflicts between the legislature and the executive over budget, oversight, and vote allocation matters. These conflicts are not only restricted to the federal level but also a common phenomenon at the state government level. This paper discusses the poor relationship over the confirmation of service chief’s matter and offers suggestions on how to improve the process. The paper concludes by positing that until strong democratic institutions are built and elected officials better understand their roles, the search for harmony between the executive and the legislature will continue to elude Nigeria. The new chiefs must put their best foot forward as they set forth to tackle the insecurity in the North-East zone of the country. This is not the time for rhetoric. They must frontally confront the security problems facing the country, especially the Boko Haram insurgency which President Jonathan recently described as the biggest challenge his administration has faced since inception.

 
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Ethno-Religious Identities in Nigeria: Implications for Governance in Nigeria

Ethno-Religious Identities in Nigeria: Implications for Governance in Nigeria

Uploaded by Okechukwu Eme

Nigeria’s political history is replete with unresolved and unsettling ethno-religious fracas and largely impotent panels to determine their causes with a view of preventing future occurrence when conflicts have not occurred, or have somehow abated; associated tensions have remained high, with all the attendant negative consequences on the socio-political and economic development in the country. Under the current democratic epoch, competitive partisan political activities are being used as avenue through which groups are mobilized, identities rigidly reinforced, often infused with excessive religiosity, violent youth gangs and militants are formed and armed, and ethnic tensions and conflicts thereby facilitated. This is not to say that expressions of ethno-religious identities always results in violence. The paper conceptualizes ethno-religious identities and analyzes the causes, extent, magnitude and implications before narrowing down to specifies. The paper concludes by suggesting how to curb ethno-religious problems in Nigeria in order to promote good governance.

 
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Ethics, Accountability and Transparency in the Conduct of Election in Nigeria

Ethics, Accountability and Transparency in the Conduct of Election in Nigeria

Uploaded by Okechukwu Eme

A Chieftain of the All Progressive Grand Alliance (APGA) in Anambra State, Chief Chuks Okeke, recently testified at the ongoing Presidential Election Petition Tribunal alleging that election in the South East region were rigged in favour of the ruling Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) and President Goodluck Jonathan. Chuks Okeke alleged that his party conspired with and officials of the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) to perpetrate election rigging. He however admitted under cross-examination that his allegation in respect of other states in the South East was based on information received from other politicians. Transparency, accountability and ethical re-orientations in the business of election and electoral process are tantamount to institutionalizing due process mechanisms in electoral matters. Due process stripped off all its technicalities, bails down to meticulous and enthusiastic observance of the laid down rules and regulations for election business. The paper examines what constitutes ethics, accountability and transparency in the conduct of election. It also examines electoral process and actors in the electoral process and the general observation in Nigeria’s electoral process. The paper goes on to identify the major problems and challenges associated with election in Nigeria and offers solutions to the problems identified.

 
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