Entries on Marketing
The Marketing world is changing rapidly. Global economic conditions, political situations, demographic variables and competitive landscapes are in a constant state of change. Marketing strategies/approaches that yield positive results yesterday may not work tomorrow. This has actually created a wide dislocation in information, strategies and skills needed in meeting up with emerging challenges. The only way to bridge this gap is by doing things differently at different times in tune with the peculiarities of the operating environment. This book, therefore, tends to bring home the basic rudiments of Marketing Management and presents its fundamentals in a comprehensive manner while at the same time relating its concepts and techniques to the peculiarities of a developing society like ours. Although there are a lot of excellent textbooks in Marketing Management, most of them have been written in a different form/style - most of them are inclined to the West.
The book Marketing Management is primarily written to provide invaluable companionship for students, educators and professionals in the field of Marketing. Its unique position provides an all-round decision making tool that attempts to reflect the changes taking place in the modern landscape of marketing. As an integrated and comprehensive text, the book adopts a learner-friendly approach that lays emphasis on providing a clear understanding of the theoretical aspects of Marketing Management so as to enable readers easily apply them to real life situations. With its clear and comprehensive coverage, the book is ideal for practitioners, self study, and equally meets the requirements of undergraduate as well as postgraduate students of Marketing and Management.
The book Management Issues in Education is another attempt to meet the need of all categories of students in educational management. The topics chosen and discussed in this book were carefully determined from the context of their relevance in bringing some critical areas in educational management into focus. The book contains twelve chapters carefully packaged to address the nature and issues in educational management. The chapters are systematically arranged starting from the historical perspective and theories of educational management. Other issues which form part of the chapters in this book are educational planning, the principle and practice/issues in the management of school, leadership issues in education; school programmes, school and discipline, issues on modern school heads, school community relationship, management of human resources in education; politics and education in Nigeria, and contemporary issues in educational management. This book is therefore written not only to serve students of different categories, but also educational managers, educational administrators in the Ministry of Education, TSB, Primary School Board, serving teachers as well as other practitioners, who will find this a very useful volume. The authors welcome any genuine and constructive criticisms as well as suggestions for the improvement of this book, while they accept full responsibility for errors and imperfections that may appear in the text.
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Ethanol extract method was used to study the optical characterization performance of the natural dyes as sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) from different plants based on optical absorbance. Four natural dyes extracted from the leaves of teak (Tectona grandis), flamboyant flower (Delonix regia), leaves of pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) and raspberry (Rubus strigosus) were optically characterized under spectronic 20 spectrophotometer. The absorbance of each of the natural dyes in the visible region of 400nm-700nm was determined and the maximum absorbance-wavelengths were obtained for the natural dyes. Among the four natural dyes, the dye extract obtained from the leaves of pumpkin has shown the best sensitizer for DSSC. Although, the dye extract of teak leaves has shown a better prospect sensitizer for DSSC. Flamboyant flower and raspberry have shown poor absorbance in the application of DSSC.
In this study only those farmers are considered who have borrowed from formal credit sources like Zarai Taraqiyati Bank Limited (ZTBL) and other commercial banks creditors. But in the rural areas of Pakistan there are many farmers who take credit from the informal sources, therefore future researches should consider the informal credits as well.