Entries on Literature
ABSTRACT Literary artists have, over the years, used literature to mirror the society in which they live. These artists are not just concerned with man’s relationship with the environment in which he lives. What happens to the wild life in the bush and the fishes of the sea and the sea in which they live and what happens to the birds of the air and even the free air in which they fly are of great concern to the artist especially as these ecological conditions affect man and the general peace of the environments .This study examines the effect the environment has on Riverine Poetry. In every aspect of life, you attribute certain qualities of a man, certain behavioral patterns, and certain modes of perception to the environment. When related to literature, certain innate qualities of literature of a place are affected by that environment. In other words, one can just see the prevalent issue of environmental degradation, human right violation, abuse of power, and how these factors affect the life and destiny of the people in the affected communities. This study, therefore, examines riverine poetry and how the poets and the poems are affected by the environment.
ABSTRACT This paper is motivated by the apparent paucity of female playwrights in Nigeria. For more than three decades studies in dramatic literature, especially as it relates to women, revolved around only two female playwrights – Zulu Sofola and Tess Onwueme. The concern of this paper, therefore, is to discover if indeed there are only two female playwrights in Nigeria, why it has to take so long for female playwrights to emerge, what motivated their emergence, how their emergence impacted dramatic literature and criticism. The paper, consequently, is divided into three main sections each designed to address a set of the questions that drive this investigation. First part of the work is titled “Paucity of Female Playwrights” and the objective is to query the slow emergence of women in the field of playwriting, coming as they did, behind men writing in the same genre and women who are writing in other genres of literature. The statistics furnished by G. I. Achufusi is used to authenticate claims. The second part, titled “Poor Image of Women”, looks at how the negative image of women in plays written by men has generated a lot of debate by the gender- sensitive critics, and acted as motive for the emergence of female playwrights. The third part, titled “Image of women in Women’s Writing” accesses the work of the emergent female playwrights to ascertain how far they differ or comply with the existing image of women in men’s writing.
Medieval period is the period from 5th to 15th century.medieval drama was therefore preceded by the Greek and Roman drama and followed by Elizabethan drama.Medieval drama arose from the ashes of Roman drama just before it evolved into Medieval drama, there was at level of infamy which entered it and which vehemently apposed by the Church.
Renaissance drama grew out of the established mediaeval tradition of the mystery and morality plays. The medieval theater focused on religions subjects and were generally enacted by the church choristers and monks. Medieval (the middle ages) and renaissance (age of re-birth) are two distinct but well related periods in dramatic history. Although renaissance thinkers often tried to dissociate themselves from the middle ages, important continuities with their recent past, such as belief in the Great Chain of Being, l were still much in evidence.
The term “medieval” come from the Latin meaning “middle age”. The term medieval (originally spelt mediaeval) was not introduced into English until the 19th century, a time when there was heightened interest in the art, history and thought of the Middle Ages. Most of the early literature of this period consists of sermons, prayers, lives of saints, and homilies. Somewhat later than the religious writers, the English secular poets appear. The figure of the King Arthur, an ancient British hero, attracted the attention of (and imagination) of thee early writers. Arthur first appeared in literature in the Latin “History of the British King” (around 1147).
Medieval drama is focuses on god, church and religion while renaissance drama is focused on secular matters typical renaissance disdain for humble people and on equally typical – renaissance obsession with ancient history. The difference found in both periods, was that of the amateur and the professional, the contemporary and the professional actors who disdain the common man.
Renaissance drama literary means rebirth, it refers to the rebirth of literature. It was also an age of new discoveries both geographically and intellectually. They associated themselves with values of classical antiquity. Medieval and renaissance literatures were influenced by two completely different eras in human history
Renaissance drama was different from medieval, though they still retained a little portion of medieval like the teaching of morals. It was the medieval that gave birth to Renaissance period by pulling away its religious coat and becoming secularized.