Entries on International Economics
Leadership, Policy and Economic Development in Nigeria and Singapore: a Comparative (1960 - 1990) is a sweeping comparison of Nigeria and Singapore on their economic development performances. It further critically assesses how leaderships in the two countries were able to influence these performances through their economic policies and developmental efforts. Particular emphasis is placed on between 1960 and 1990; although post 1990 is briefly captured but strictly on economic policies and performances of successive governments. This book elementrifies foundational reasons why the two countries have divergent economic development statistics despite starting with homologous economic statistics in the 1960s, with cross-national opportunities and constraints. It reveals how the two different and newly independent countries in the 60s followed different paths toward nation building. The correlations between leadership, economic policymaking and implementation, and economic development are established. The period of 1960 to 1990 played key, formative roles in the both countries’ economic development narratives. Within the three decades, Singapore was transformed from a third to first world country while Nigeria was caught up with International Monetary Fund’s Structural Adjustment Program. This Comparative Study captures cross-national differences and finds out lessons Nigeria can learn from Singapore in pursuing an inclusive and sustainable economic development. This book is a fitting primary source for students, scholars and researchers of development studies, public policy, development economics, leadership, governance and regional development.
For effective and efficient implementation of innovation strategy announced in the Europe 2020 flagship initiative of innovation union; a forceful request for innovation processes and techniques should be revalued both at the European Union (EU) level and at the member states as this will entails a smart and single application of the primary market with its means of advocating and sustaining on a high demanding side.
The development had enabled and indeed necessitated the reorganization of the production and distribution of goods and services.
China has had direct contact with Africa dating back to the pre-colonial period (Anshan, 2013).