Entries on Foreign Politics
I am delighted to be invited to give this Memorial Lecture in memory of a great son of Benue and advocate of youth empowerment—the late Basil Chianson. I never met Basil, but from what I have gathered I understand he was a mercurial man who had the courage of his convictions. He is fondly remembered for being principled, courageous, feisty, honest, straightforward and humble. I am also told that he was an embodiment of self-sacrifice.
It is cogent to say that the foundation of Nigeria’s foreign policy was laid at the point of her independence. The administration of her foreign policy was conceived prior to her independence in 1957, during which the training of those who paved the way for an independent Nigeria took place. It is pertinent to note here that at this point, Nigeria was only involved in external relations from time to time with the United Kingdom and a few other countries, hence, this paper seeks to examine the role that Nigeria played during this period in the leadership of Africa, all through the fourth republic, till date. This paper will also make use of conceptual clarifications of the term foreign policy as well as identify the issues Nigeria has faced and is facing in the leadership of Africa from 1960-date and will also attempt a discuss on the issues facing Nigeria in her quest to maintain her leadership position in the African continent. Keywords: Foreign Policy, Leadership, Independence
This study examines the nature of railway and their policies in Nigeria and Japan with a focus on finding out the factors that have hindered successful policy implementation in the Nigerian railway sectors and how these processes have affected national development. It has the objective of finding out the strategies that enabled success of the Japanese railways and how these strategies can be applied in Nigeria to rescue the current dilapidated railway sector. The researcher used primary and secondary methods of data collection to gather the needed data. The data obtained through questionnaires were presented in tables and analyzed using the simple percentage. The findings have also shown that factors which militate against successful policy implementation in Nigeria include lack of continuity and multiplicity of policy by different administrations in Nigeria, inadequate resources, non involvement of the local people in policy implementation and corruption. It also discovered that the low level of implementation has been responsible for the low level of development in Nigeria and that the success of the Japanese railway system is as a result of the strategic restructuring of the system in 1986 and that this has been responsible for the country`s high level of development. The researcher therefore recommended that for policies to be successfully implemented in Nigeria, there must be a political will by government, local people must be involved, resources must be adequately mobilized and corruption should be strictly avoided. Others include policy restructure and privatization of the rail sector, decentralization of railways into regional or state based, separation of passengers and freight railways etc. And that the money realized from the sectors should be deployed in developing other sectors. These ensure efficiency of the implementation process of policies and that of the railway system and consequently enhancing national development.
Background The Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution introduced in a period referred to as Prohibition during which the production, distribution as well as the sales of alcoholic beverages was unlawful. The passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919 was the craving success of the temperance movement but it soon became highly infamous. Crime rates increased during prohibition as gangsters; for instance, AL Capone became a wealthy form; profitable and yielding and usually a violent black market for Alcohol. The Federal Government was incapable of eliminating the tide; corruption was proved to be a nearly challenging task. In 1932; a wealthy industrialist was against the Eighteenth Amendment as they expressed their opinion As more and more Americans were against the Eighteenth Amendment, a political movement enticed rapidly for its repeal. Also; repeal was complexed by grassroots politics. Notwithstanding; the United States (US) constitution provided two means of formally approving constitutional amendments; only one of them is been applied up till date and that was for the approval by the state legislatures of three-fourth (3/4) of the states. Also; the wise decision of the day was that the lawmakers were either simply fearful or behold ends the temperance lobby. As a result of that reason; when congress officially suggested repeal of prohibition on February 20, 1933 (with the requirements of two-thirds having voted in approval in each house; 269 to 121 in the United States (US) House of Representatives and 63 to 21 in the United States (US) senate). It selected the second ratification (approval) method set up by Article V that was being through States conventions. The Twenty-First Amendment (Amendment XXI) is the sole constitutional amendment approved by State Conventions rather than by the approval of the State Legislatures.
All states have some kind of relations with one another. No state in the modern times can avoid the involvement in the international affairs, and this involvement must be systematic and based on certain principles. In other words, states have to behave with one another in a particular manner. The framing of the foreign policy is, therefore, an essential activity of a modern state, for a state without foreign policy is like a ship without rider which may drift aimlessly and may be swept away by a storm of current events. What a state intends to do is defined by its interests; what is actually able to achieve is a function of its military and economic capability as well as the quality of its diplomacy.
NATIONAL CONFERENCE, FEDERALISM AND THE NATIONAL QUESTION: FEDERALISM, CONSTITUTIONALISM AND ELECTIONS INNIGERIA
PREFACE The book “Public Enterprises Management in Nigerian” has three parts with twenty-two chapters. In part, one we have defined the concept public enterprises, the origin of Public Enterprises, the justifications, objectives and reasons for the creation of public enterprises are enumerated and the criteria for identifying public enterprises were equally addressed. This part also discussed the classification of Public Enterprises based on Functions and Objectives. The Second part presents a brief history of public enterprises in Nigeria. We also discussed and drew the organisation structure of public enterprises; listed the sources of finance, staffing, control and accountability of public enterprises. Also we contend that the control functions of the key actors in the evaluation of public enterprises performance; enumerated performance measures of public enterprises and the problems of public enterprises in Sub Saharan Africa. This part concludes by positing that the success of public enterprises depends on the strict application of management principles and practices. There is no short cut to efficiency and effectiveness. The resort to sale of public enterprises confirms the fact that inefficient management cannot produce the desired results. The problems of public enterprises in Sub Saharan Africa should be addressed as a means of improving their performance. The concept of public enterprises as a developmental strategy cannot be overruled. However, the management of these enterprises in Sub Saharan Africa and in Nigeria in particular leaves much to be desired. The success of public enterprises in Nigeria is a function of the will of government. Part 3 exposes the student to the concept of privatization and commercialization of public enterprises. The forms, strategies, objectives, legal and institutional framework of privatization and commercialization are discussed. The reasons for the privatization and commercialization of public enterprises among which are poor performance of these enterprises are highlighted. This part also discusses privatization of public enterprises in the Sub Saharan Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. It listed the factors that led to the emergence of privatization; enumerated the modalities for privatization; listed and discussed the different types of privatization as well as explained the problems of privatization in Nigeria.