Entries on Culture
The compendium of the first Tiv National Conference mirrors the evolution of a people with rich ancestral heritage. The essays in this volume make a complete graphic account of the history, politics and culture of the Tiv. It is an attempt at reconstructing and redeeming a people’s historical and cultural values, a debt that must be paid to posterity. The authors make a plea for the unity and development of Tivland. This is a book that must be on the shelf of, not just researchers on Tiv contemporary history, but every political leader and administrator will also find it useful.
ABSTRACT Proverbs (ufied) is one of the systems of communication that are passed from one generation to another and are derived from society’s experience and thoughts over a long period of years. Over the years, its understanding and usage has been taken to be the sole rights of the elders in traditional societies. This paper discusses the writing styles that are found in Annang social proverbs (ufied) and to show that they are an embodiment of knowledge and virtue, extant and relevant in contemporary Nigerian society. These findings are contributions to a better understanding of proverbs as a tool for national development. The historical phenomenology was used in the study. Data collection was from primary and secondary sources. Consequently, the study recommended that government at the local, state and national levels should ensure that adequate security measures are put in place to curb crimes and insurgencies in the society. Also, traditional rulers, priests, votaries of Annang traditional religion should help promote and educate their subjects and others on the need to preserve Annang folklore as a language of social communication. Finally, the print and television media is an educative medium and as such should be made to feed from a reservoir of a well established and documented Annang literature.
ABSTRACT : Since the works of such colonial scholars as Arthur Glyn Leonard, Northcote W. Thomas, Armory Talbot and M.D.W. Jeffreys, followed by the epic archaeological excavations at Igbo-Ukwu and the subsequent works of M.A. Onwuejeogwu, the questions of which sub-group represent the original settlers of Igbo land as well as constitute the original bearers of Igbo culture have continued to revolve around the orbit of controversy. Until the discovery and subsequent excavation of the Igbo-Ukwu archaeological sites, these issues had revolved around the Nri, also known as the Umunri, following the accounts of the colonial writers whose works were more ethnographically sensational than historical in objective and method. Although the Umunri thesis of Igbo origins and culture was originally applied in the interpretation of the Igbo-Ukwu sites, further historical researches proved the contrary. It was this emerging evidence which revealed that, originally the Umunri were not of Igbo but of Igala extraction which consequently questioned the authenticity of the Umunri claims of primordial rights and privileges under the aegis of Igbo history and culture. It was on the basis of this twisted historical evidence the Igbo-Ukwu, from whose soil the artefacts were excavated, began the lay claims to the same primordial rights originally centered on the Umunri, thus giving rise to a stream of controversy on which the other sub-groups have either become co-contestants or biased arbiters. The present work therefore looks at this stream of controversy through telescopic approach of a historian of Igbo extraction.
ABSTRACT: The Igala worldview emphasizes life, death and life after death. The Igala hold firmly that the dead are not dead. They live in an immortal world where they advocate for the living. The Igala believe that the dead who are now the ancestors can reincarnate and are born again as babies, or may return to the world as masked spirits or incarnate beings. The Akwubaliba incarnate being is one of numerous incarnate beings in Igalaland. In Igala culture, incarnate beings are sacred and sacrosanct. They serve several functions one of which is social control. The Akwubaliba which means locust are young masked spirits or incarnate beings between the ages of ten to thirteen years. The Akwubaliba incarnate beings may number up to two hundred or more. Their appearance usually sends mothers and barren women into different types of psychological and emotional states. The essence of this paper is to explore the reasons for these two groups of women’s emotional and psychological states during the outing of these young incarnate beings and the impact of such emotional and psychological states on the society.
Abstract: It has been observed that most artistic ideas in wood, clay, and metals in Igboland are expressed through traditional mural painting symbols which convey important lexical messages. According to Willis(1987) “the Igbo woman’s perception of all aspects of life and nature and most notably ideas and objects which are held to be particularly important and representative of Igbo culture are translated into visual vocabulary which provides important reference material for designers, art historians, engineers and ethnographers alike”. This paper, therefore, seeks to bring to limelight , how the culture of Nsukka people and Igbo in general is expressed through the study of their traditional architectural wall paintings rendered in thorough naturally made indelible ink of “Uli” (black indigo), “Nzu”(natural clay), “Ufie”(red ochre gotten from plants), charcoal and other natural dyes in the form of leaves. These motifs touch on all aspects of Igbo life and serves as ethnographic evidence for studying the cultural history of the area in the absence of direct core archaeological evidence. The method applied in the course of carrying out this research is ethnographic method. This involves the collection of oral information from the extant members of the community that are knowledgeable in the topic of research. Primary secondary sources of information were used. The primary source of data came from oral tradition collected, while the secondary source came from documented literature on the topic of research. Pictures were also used for clarity sake.
Abstract: Some studies assert with evidence that the concept of a supreme God is foreign to Igbo pre-missionary contact religious thoughts. They mostly point to western influences on such a “supremacy” concept in both the minds of the early observers of the Igbo and in the Igbo themselves who had been either proselytized or swayed by the proselytization of Christianity, consciously or not. Other scholars confirm the presence of a supreme God in Igbo religious thoughts. Using Georg Hegel’s Dialectic and Uzodinma Nwala’s Radical Interpenetration as theoretical framework, this work presents both views, collecting data through documentary evidence of ethnographic reports and closely examining the perspectives of ethnographic reports in pursuit of any undeniable proof of the existence and extent of structure and popularity of the concept of supreme deification in Igbo thoughts. The evolution of Igbo traditional religious systems catalyzed by migrant knowledge and the adoption and syncretization of the appurtenances of outside cultures were investigated. The researchers came to the deduction that for the pre-Aro adult Igbo, the definition of supreme Deity is different from western thinking today in that a supreme Deity is particularistic or universal in a decentralized form for a given Igbo clan and from the viewpoint of that clan, the deity is the highest among gods in the world (where “world” meant a smaller sphere than is seen today)...
The grammar of wh-words is common in the literature. One may hold that its popularity may be due to its valence and linguistic versatility in language discourses. A point of interest in the literature has been the syntactic position of the wh-words in sentences. Opinions are divided on the syntactic position of the wh-words in clauses. Some scholars hold that the occurrences or the syntactic positions of the words in clauses is usually at the discretion of the users; while others hold that for adequate communicative potency, the wh-words occur in specified positions. In this paper, we uphold that the syntactic position of the wh- words in clauses is largely language specific. The words can be based generated in a particular slot in the clause, in which case, it is said to be in-situ; it can also occur in a non-in-situ position in which case, it is said to be product of transformational displacement. To descriptively x- ray or get at the thrust of our concern, we divided this paper into two sections. Section one which is called Set-A-type, discusses the syntactic in-situ position of the wh-words. In this occurrence, the wh-words that occur at both subject and predicate in situ are defined; those that can only occur at predicate in situ are also shown. Section two which we tagged Set-B-type, discusses the syntactic non-in situ occurrence of the wh-words. This section explains the circumstances for the occurrence and also some grammatical nuances that follow the occurrence.
Festivals are common to all human societies. In Nigeria, numerous festivals are usually celebrated in different places at various seasons of the year depending on the nature and aim of such festivals. The aim of this paper is to identify the various cultural festivals in Igboland so as to showcase their values and/or relevance in today‟s society using the mass media of communication. This is especially so when we realize that communication is central to development. Accurate information is essential in order to mobilize, motivate and/or re-orient people to participate, organize and make informed decisions. The paper argues that the mass media is pivotal in the effort to project cultural festivals for development purposes, especially national development.
Creativeness and description constitute a natural sequence which finds expression in language. While the former is unconscious, the latter is deliberate. This paper examines the relationship between the unconscious resort, by the literary writer, to his latent knowledge of phonology and the wilful art of phonological descriptions.
The dress fashion trends of the Nsukka Igbo of the southeastern Nigeria have not been the subject of any scholarly study. The present attempt is therefore to find out whether the dress tendencies of the people were so inconsequential as not to attract the attention of researchers and scholars or whether they lived in a hermetically sealed terrain as to shield off completely the ever-groping lenses of the researchers and scholars. This paper in an attempt at addressing the issues thus raised investigates the trajectory of the dress fashion of the Nsukka Igbo area from the earliest time, specifically between 1900 and 1980; and as well tries to locate how time and space have affected the style changes of the Nsukka Igbo dress fashion. In so doing, historical and sociological methodological approaches are employed to source and elicit information from available scanty sources. The paper considers the traditional and contemporary periods of dress fashion changes of the Nsukka Igbo. Traditional as used in this context refers to the authentic dress fashion of the Nsukka Igbo not tainted by Western presence while contemporary refers to the dress fashion as it exists presently amidst western influences.
Worship is an imperative urge in man. Its beginning may be traced back to the basic instinct invoked in man when he came in contact with the power whom he believed to be the determiner of his destiny. It is generally believed in Igbo land and in Nkpor that the universe was created by God. To an Nkpor man, the universe which consists of both visible and invisible, is made and controlled by God; thus the name Chineke - „the God that creates‟. They believe that (Chi na Eke) this God is the creator of all things and under him come other small gods like Ana – the earth deity, Ọfọ and Ogu to help in the supervision of the universe. Their belief in Ọfọ and Ogu symbols in Nkpor religious beliefs cannot be over emphasized. They are potent tools in the hands of the chief priest and other designated people in maintaining law and other in the Nkpor community. This paper examines the concept of Ọfọ and Ogu and their significance in the control of social, political, religious, and cultural life of Nkpor people, despite the introduction of western civilization by the Europeans.