Entries on Chemistry
Molecular dynamics over the years has proven to be a useful tool in drug discovery in the areas of; free energy of binding estimation, enhancement of traditional virtual screening and molecular docking, identification of cryptic and allosteric site, and studying the role of water in drug design, etc. Molecular dynamics simulations are useful for filling in the details where experimental methods cannot and they are likely to play an increasingly important role in the development of novel pharmacological therapeutics. To ensure better results in the future from molecular dynamics, better architectures that allow long-term simulations will be required, this entails high computational power, and hence its improvement is relied on advancement in computer power and algorithm design.
ABSTRACT: The Hydrophile-Lipophile balance (HLB) of bovine mucin was evaluated. Mucin was processed from the small intestine of freshly s aughtered cow v a precipitation w th chilled acetone, air-drying and pulverization Series of emulsion were formed with bovine mucin and paraffin oil, in varying ratios, the most stable emulsion with the least creaming level was found to be mucin-oil ratio of 1 9, after a period of 7 days and the HLB value of mucin calculated according to standard methods. The HLB value of mucin was 8.4. These HLB value fell within the range of 8 – 18, that is characterist cs o oil-in-water (o/w) emulgents.
Octanol/water partition coefficient and bioaccumulation index of Bonny light crude oil, having a ractonal percentage composition of 81.11 saturate, 7.20 aromatcs, 2.48 ashphaltene and 9.21 residues, were studied in microcosm aquaria using a fresh water catfish Clarias agboyiensis. The partition coefficient (Kf iiii tow) of the crude oil was evaluated to be 0.74. The mean bioaccumulation values of the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in the homogenates of the whole fish, liver and kdney at intervals of 24, 72 and 120 hours were respectvely 0.845 ± 0.118, 11.0 ± 0.058 and 15.0 ± 0.064 after exposing the whole fishto sedimentand water, respectively containing 31 μg/g and 190 μg/l of the crude oil in the aquarium. The mean bioaccumulation values of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in the tissue homogenates of the exposed fish were higher than in the control (p<0.05), thus suggesing that Bonny light crude oil with Kow of 0.74 could be lipophilic.
The prevalence of caprine strongyle infections and the diagnostic efficacy of some culture media in supporting the recovery of strongyle larvae were evaluated using 840 faecal sampes collected from goats during slaughter at Maiduguri Metropolitan abattoir. Faecal examination conducted by the modfied McMaster technique revealed that outof 840 goats examined, 708 (83.8 %) shedded strongyle eggs in their faeces. The prevalence of infection was significantly (P < 005) higher among female, young and diarrhoeic goats than their corresponding male, adult and non-diarrheic counterparts. Faecal culture and larval recovery using the test tube filter paper technique revealedthat the direct culture o faecal samples without any additional culture medium supported the recovery of the largest number of nematode infecve larvae from the faeces. When this was used as a standard (100% egg hatch or 0% reduction in egg hatch), larval recovery was highest (P<0.05) from goat faeces (98.4 %) folowed respectively by sheep faeces (57.7 %), cow faeces (52.4 %), horse faeces (42.3 %) and so (18.6 %) as culture media. The results therefore indicatethe superor diagnostic quality o goat faeces as a culture medium for the recovery of infective nematode stages in goat faeces.
Tails of three groups of the Gekkonid lizard, Hemidactylus flavivirdis, were amputated (group I) orautotomized (groups II and III). The animals were exposed to 12 hours of ight and 12 hours of darkness. Ingroup I experiment, previously regenerated tails were amputated (repeated autotomyRA) with a pair of sharp scissors, after anesthetizing the animals with ice cubes, at point equivalent to three autotomy segments. The orginal planes of autotomy have been replaced by ependymal tubes and there were noblood exudates,. In group II the spinal cord at thelocal site of autotomy was carefuly removed (spinal cord removed, SCR), with dissecting instruments, for a length equal to one autotomy segment Lizards in group III served as controls (NormalLizard NL). The results show that the initiation o regeneration, the growth rate, the total length of new growth (regenerate) produced, and the total percentage replacement of the lost (amputated/autotomized) tails 30 days after excision were all signiicantly less in lizards of group II (p < 001) and insignifcantly less in group I lzards, when compared with the controls (group III). The results show that for complete regeneration of the lizard tai neural tissue must be present.
Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the pupicidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts (NSKE) on Aedes aegypti. The neem seed kernel powder was sequentially extracted with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, DMSO, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol and dstiledwater. Ten concentratons (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 50, 10.0,15.0 and 20.0%) of the neem extracts were used for the bioassays. Each treatment was replcated five times. Twenty-laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti pupae were exposed to each concentration Pupae were not fed durng the exposure periods. Pupal mortality was assessed after 1 and 24 hoursof exposure. The results of the effects of 1h exposure indicated decreased pupicidal mortality whdecreasing extracts toxicity thus: ethyl acetate (LC i l i . i . i it . i l i l l l 50 = 0.06%) > acetone > (LC50 = 0.29%) > benzene (LC50 = 0.82%) > hexane (LC50 = 3.13%) and propanol (LC50 = 763%). No pupal mortality was observed with extracts from Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, methanol and distilled water. The results of the effect of extract for 24h exposure indicated pupicidal mortality in2-propanol (LC50 = 0.67%) and ethanol (LC50 = 1.70%). No pupcida mortality was observed wth hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), methano and distiled water extracts. The ability of some neem extracts to kill Aedes pupae at relativey low concentrations presents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of mosquitoes. This techniqueis environmental friendly, biodegradable, less expensive, and locally available in mosquito endemicarea. Potentials for adoption in mosquito management programmes cannot be overemphasized.
Plasmodium infection in man is caused by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. This results in the disease, malaria. Malaria has serious debilitating effects on man. It adversely affectsman’s health, strength and productivity. Here, a review of Plasmodium infection in man including the life cycle transmisson, immunity, symptoms, diagnosis, pathology, prevention, control and treatment is given. Only by knowing about Plasmodium infection, the burden of infection on man and the prevention and control options can we understand the disease better and so be better prepare for the future management of this disease.
The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous extracts o neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf and stem and root barks against the hatching of eggs and the survival of larvae of nematode parasites of small ruminants were studied.
The present application of the word “Industrie 4.0” has been regarded as totally meaningless most especially on the claims that the principle of “revolution” in technology innovation is centered on the insufficiency of knowledge of details and also that technological invention and innovation is continuous.
Research shows that poor governance, illiteracy, disease and lack of political will are the major factors hindering development. Our government need act now!