Entries on Biotechnology
The world is experiencing at the moment and years to come to an influx of data from the available connected devices. As we welcome new gadgets especially connected to the Internet, we release more data into the cloud. Cloud computing is a phenomenon that also revolutionalized our lives. It was once we had to move our data such as pictures, music, etc over some portable disk or USB drives but not anymore. All the digitized mediums have hugely contributed to the large volumes of our private and public stored in the cloud. How do we approach the data related to our health acquired through various Electronic Health Management systems or most popularly, smartphones, smart watches or smart bands? This piece of review document endeavours to study the research that has been conducted by other school of thoughts and review them to understand how health data in the cloud has been approached.
Aims: To improve the cultural conditions for enhanced methionine production by Bacillus cereus S8 Study design: Study of the fermentation process in shake flask culture. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Applied Microbiology and Brewing, Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka, Nigeria between 2011 to 2012. Methodology: The effects of medium/fermenter volume ratio, carbon and nitrogen sources, growth stimulators, vitamins and amino acid on methionine accumulation in the broth culture of Bacillus cereus S8 were investigated. The time course for methionine production was also studied. Results: A 20% medium/fermenter volume ratio improved methionine yield. Glucose and ammonium sulphate at 6.0 and 1.0% respectively stimulated methionine accumulation by Bacillus cereus S8. Yeast extract, peptone, DL-leucine and all vitamins studied enhanced methionine production. A methionine yield of 3.23mg/ml was produced after 96h fermentation and at a pH of 6.90. Conclusion: Improving the cultural conditions of Bacillus cereus S8 in submerged medium stimulated methionine increase.
Bacillus thuringiensis EC1, isolated from the fermented oil bean seed, Pentachletra macrophila Benthan, produced a methionine yield of 1.89 mg/ml. The influence of cultural conditions on methionine accumulation by B. thuringiensis EC1 showed that a 20% medium/fermenter volume ratio and a 5% inoculum size increased methionine yield. The carbon of choice was maltose and at 8% level stimulated methionine production. Among the nitrogen sources studied, ammonium sulphate was found to be the best and at 1% concentration produced a methionine yield of 2.56 mg/ml. All growth-promoting substances and their mixtures enhanced methionine accumulation by B. thuringiensis EC1. The effect of Vitamins on methionine production showed that riboflavin and thiamine HCl at 1.0 μg/ml yielded 2.49 mg/ml and 2.80 mg/ml methionine respectively. The influence of bivalent metals on methionine accumulation indicated that Zn2+ at all concentration stimulated methionine production. Mg2+ and Ba2+ at 0.1 μg/ml and 10.0 μg/ml respectively improved methionine yield. Optimizing the cultural conditions of B. thuringiensis EC1 in submerged medium gave a methionine yield of 3.18 mg/ml.
Pests have continued to be problematic in warehouses of most feed mills and food manufacturing industres. Pests are heterogeneous both in space and time, creating gradients and patterns depending on the prevailing environmental variables. Pest control efforts have utilized manipulations of these variables. This project is ona module for thermal control of pests using the hitherto waste steam from the indusries. The module is an engineering contraption, which uses steam to raise temperature within it to insecticidal levels (above 45°C). This causes halt in development and proein denaturing (leading to mortality) of the pests (eggs, larvae and adults). This applied heat also toasts the material inside the module thereby improving its quality. The module consists of a rotary drum with steam passing through convoluted tube (without coming in contact withthe handledmaterial), with a capacity o 2 tons/hr o commodities. It accepts steam at 130°C and discharges it at 110°C. The steam pressure (permssible) is 2.7 bars. Steam velocity is 8m/s. The volume of the drum is 4 m3. A two- screw- 90 degrees-lead –counter screw-rotation typebaffle is installed to achieve even distribution of heat on the material within the drum. The moduleis efficient, effective and useful in any integrated pest management effort.
Mosquito control strategies adopted by the residents of two Ishiagu Communities (Okue and Ihie)were investgated. 53 households in Okue and 54 in Ihie were sampled. Simple structured questionnaires were prepared and administered. Percentages and chi square (X2) test of significance was employed in analysing the data. The result revealed that 429 % of the residents of the two communities used insecticides, 25.2% used mosquito coils, 6.5% used smoke of local herbs and 5.6% were insensitive to mosquito nuisance and careless about mosquito control. Choice of control measures by residents of the two communities were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Occupational related preferences revealed that farmers ranked highest in the use of insecticides and coils (21.5%) each. 131% of teachers use insecticides and 37% use nettings. Statistical analysis of the occupational related choice patterns was significant (P < 005).
The length-weight relatonship and condition factor of four mormyrid species namely Mormyrus rume, Hyperopisus bebe, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Gnathonemus petersii from Anambra river were investigated from October 2002 to March 2004. In al400 species M. rume, 384 H. bebe417 C. tamandua and 335 G. petersii were sampled for the study Length-weigh relationship showed that the exponent “b,’ were 3.067, 2.459, 3.201 and 3.114 for M. rume, H. bebe, C. tamandua and G. petersii respectively. The mormyrid species studied with exception of H. bebe exhibited isometric growth and the correlation coefficients were positive and highly sgnificant (P < 0.05). The condtion factor (k) varied from 0.69 ± 0.22 in G. petersii to 1.17 ± 0.59 in M. rume. There were no significant difference in the mean condition facor between themales and females inall the mormyrid species. The importance of condition factor in the breeding activities o the mormyrid species revealed that not much energy s diverted into gonad synthesis and maturation during the breeding cycle season.
The prevalence of caprine strongyle infections and the diagnostic efficacy of some culture media in supporting the recovery of strongyle larvae were evaluated using 840 faecal sampes collected from goats during slaughter at Maiduguri Metropolitan abattoir. Faecal examination conducted by the modfied McMaster technique revealed that outof 840 goats examined, 708 (83.8 %) shedded strongyle eggs in their faeces. The prevalence of infection was significantly (P < 005) higher among female, young and diarrhoeic goats than their corresponding male, adult and non-diarrheic counterparts. Faecal culture and larval recovery using the test tube filter paper technique revealedthat the direct culture o faecal samples without any additional culture medium supported the recovery of the largest number of nematode infecve larvae from the faeces. When this was used as a standard (100% egg hatch or 0% reduction in egg hatch), larval recovery was highest (P<0.05) from goat faeces (98.4 %) folowed respectively by sheep faeces (57.7 %), cow faeces (52.4 %), horse faeces (42.3 %) and so (18.6 %) as culture media. The results therefore indicatethe superor diagnostic quality o goat faeces as a culture medium for the recovery of infective nematode stages in goat faeces.
The systemic availability of a drug is the amount of administered drug which reaches the systemic circulation intact (Graham-Smith and Aronson, 1992). Measurement of drug concentration in the blood and urine are performed to determine the need for adjustment of the dosage or of the schedule of administration (Saganuwan et al., 2003).
Virulence is an important property of microorganisms in relation to their pathogenicity and is defined as the capacity of the organism to invade tissues, multiply and produce toxic effects.
Plasmodium infection in man is caused by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. This results in the disease, malaria. Malaria has serious debilitating effects on man.
Diabetes mellitus may be caused and or exacerbated by certain chemicals or compounds which elicit oxidative stress (Traverso et al., 1999, Ogugua, 2000) in the exposed individual.
Cassia occiden alis (Caesalpiniaceae) is a small tree growing 5 – 8 metres in height (Blumgarten, 1937). The leaves are compound, composite, paripinnate with 5 – 8 pairs of leaflets usually oval.