Entries on Biology
ABSTRACT: Twenty 8-week old crosses of New Zealand White X Chinchila weaner rabbits were used to assess the performance of rabbits fed diets with cassava peel replaced with maize on a graded level. Five d ets were formulated diets 1 (control), 2, 3, 4, and 5 in wh ch maize was replaced w th cassava peel at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%, respectively. The 20 rabbits were used in a comp etely randomized design with ve treatments and four animal replicates per treatment. The trial lasted for 8 weeks. Parameters measured were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg. It was observed that there was no significant difference (P > 0 05) in the average daily feed intake of the rabbits fed diets 3 4 and 5 However, diets 3 4 and 5 had s gnificantly higher (P < 0.05) intake than d ets 1 and 2. Similarly rabbits on d ets 3, 4 and 5 had higher (P < 0 05) growth rates than those fed the control diet and d et 2 Feed cost per kg (N/kg) decreased from N35 33 in the control d et to N19.75 in d et 5. Cost of feed/kg live weight gain (N/day) decreased from N3.21 in the contro diet to N1.29 in diet 5. It was concluded that maize supplementation in the diets of weaner rabbits could be replaced by cassava peels up to 100 % without any adverse effect.
ABSTRACT The influence of cassava varieties on the developmental biology of Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) was investigated. This beetle was reared on flour varieties of cassava, namely: Danwari, Nwugo, Aburu-Asua and Ant -Ota. More eggs were la d in Danwari (132.0 i i+ 6.1 egg) than in other cassava variety. The least number of eggs laid was in Nwugo (118.3+-4.5) in No-choice experiment. In Freechoice test, the highest number of eggs was recorded in Aburu-Asua (64.0 + lowest (41.6 + . . 1 7 eggs) and the 3 1 eggs) on Anti-Ota. The average total developmental period in, Aburu-Asua, Nwugo, Danwari and Ant -Ota were 32.5 i+ 0.4, 30.6 + 0.2, 28.5 + 0.1 and 34.7 + 0.1 days respectively. The low oviposition preference for Nwugo was attributed to the presence of oviposition deterrents in this variety, which might have protected it against the beetle attack.
ABSTRACT The prevalence of Cysticercus bovis at Jos abattoir during post mortem examination conducted on Fourteen thousand three hundred and seventy two (14,372) slaughtered cattle over a period of two years (January 1997 – Dec. 1999), using evag nation method. Out of 14,372 carcasses examined 1924 (13.4 %) tested positive for C. bovis. The sites of the location of the larvae varied from one organ to another with the heart having the highest 48 (30.0 %) and the least affected were the visceral organs livers, lungs and esophagi. There is a positive correlation between the number of C. bovis cyst and the percentage frequency of the organ affected (P<0.05).
ABSTRACT An investigation was carried out to study the bee le fauna of a cultivated farmland and tropical rainforest plot at the Permanent. Site of Nnamd Azikiwe University, Awka for a twelve-month period using the pitfall echnique. Eight pitfall traps made up of plastic containers with mouth diameters of 9.80 cm and 6.20 cm deep were set monthly at random in the two sampling sites. The traps, which were filled to one third with 5 % formalin, serving a preservative, were recovered after twenty-four hours and the insects caught sorted and counted under a dissecting microscope. Species of beetle obtained from the cultivated plot were Macrocheilus labrosus, Hyparpalus sp., Carpophilus fumatus, Podagrica uniforma, Tetragonothorax sp., Chlaenius sp., Pheropsophus parallus, Silidas apicalis, Tenebroides mauritanicus, Heteroderes sp., and Heterorynchus licas while only Hyparpa us sp., and Mylabris sp., were obtained from the fallow p ot. The result of Fisher's Least Significance Difference (F-LSD) test shows that the pitfall catches of beetles from the two samp ing si es were significant y di erent at p-value of 0.0002 and mean d ference of 3.417. The heterogeneity of the bee le species at the cultivated plot was traced to nature of vegetation and mode of life of the beetle species. The role of certain beetle families as faunal indicators was highlighted. Other factors, which influenced the beetle species at the arable plot and their nontrapping at the forest ecosystem, were also discussed.
ABSTRACT: The sweep net was used to study the Odonata fauna of the Permanent Site of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka for a twelve-month period. The Odonata species collected from the marshy plot included Orthetrum chrysostigma, Ceriagrion glabrum, Platycnemis subaequistyla Fraser and Nesciothemis nigeriensis while Hemistigma coronata and Palpopleura lucia were obtained from the fallow plot. Only two species - Palpopleura lucia and Hemistigma albipuncta were collected from the cultivated plot. A statistical analysis of the collections of these insect species using Analysis o Variance (ANOVA) failed to show any significant differences at F-ratio of 0.458 and p-value of 0.6339, even though higher numbers of species were obtained at the wetland. Similarly the sweep net catches failed to show any significant difference using the Fisher's Least Significance Difference (F-LSD) test at 5% probability level. The higher catches of the odonates at the marshy plot was traced to the nature of the habitat. The role of these sub aquatic species as indicators of ecosystem quality was hghlighted.
ABSTRACT A cross-sectional epidem ological investigation was conducted in Nsukka senatorial zone of Nigeria to evaluate the use of specific clinical signs/symptoms in the assessment of the endemicity, prevalence and morbidity of Loa loa infection in areas meso-endemic for onchocerciasis, and to evaluate the results in respect of the probability of occurrence of adverse react ons, post-treatment with ivermectin in areas presumed to be hypo-, meso-, and hyper endemic for Loa loa infection and morbidity. Standard questionnaire based on the key clinical manifes ations of loias s were administered and the mic ofilaraemic levels of respondents determined at both community and individual levels. The results showed that the clinica symptoms/signs were known in all the study communities. Altogether 22.0% o respondents (n=1600) positively indicated having experienced either Loa loa infection and/ or Calabar swelling. Based on the quest onnaire indices, an intercommunity prevalence of 21.9% (range 17.50 - 27.50%) was establ shed An overall communi y medan microf araemia (mf) prevalence of 19.4% (range 15.0 - 26.3%) was also recorded. A microfilaraemia prevalence >20% was however established in >35% of the study communities indicating the possibility of adverse reaction after ivermectin administration. More males (n=203, 12.7%) than females (n=109, 6.8%) were microf araemic. Linear logistic regression indicated that Loa loa infection was significantly associated with age (adjusted odds rat o: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.00-1.14, p<0.001). The intercommuni y mean intensi y o i i t il i i t i i . t f microfilarial load varied (range 112 ± 25 – 205 ± 30).The best diagnostic performance was obta ned for reported history of L. loa w th a sensitivi y of 100% and a specifici y of 94.6%...
ABSTRACT The effect o replacing groundnut cake with urea fermented brewer’s dried grains at 0 25 50, 75 and 100 % graded levels in broiler chick starter diets was investigated. Five dietary treatments were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric to provide 23 % crude protein and 2900 kcal/kg metabolizable energy. One hundred and ninety – five day-old broiler chicks (Anak breed) were randomly allotted to five treatments replicated thrice with 13 chicks per replicate, fed and watered ad libitum in battery cages for 35 days. Means of body weight, weight gain, feed intake and feed: weight gain rat o of broiler chicks fed the control diet, 25 and 50 % urea fermented brewer’s dried grains d ets were significant y (P < 0.05) better than those fed 75 and 100 % inclusion levels. Nitrogen and lipid retention, crude fibre and dry matter digestibilities of broiler chicks followed the same trend w th the weight per ormance. Mortality was zero. Economically, i was more profitable to use urea fermented brewer’s dried grains in replacing groundnut cake in broiler chicks diets.
ABSTRACT: The mushroom flora and associated insect pests of mushrooms in Nsukka urban was studied. The abundance of mushrooms from sampled communit es is indica ed with the family, Agaricaceae predominating “out of home” environment yielded more mushrooms (4.62) than the homestead environment (3.26). Insect pests associated with different mushrooms were Megas ela aganic Musca domestica Pygmaephorous stercola Paychybolus ligulatus and Drosophilla melanogester among others.
ABSTRACT Prevalence of intestinal helminths infections among school children in Igbo-Eze South Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria were stud ed between July and December 2005 Significant differences (P < 0.05) were recorded among the 1,296 school chi dren (ages 4 – 15) randomly sampled and examined for intestina helminthes. The prevalence of intestinal helminths varied significantly among schools sampled (P < 0.05). Central Schoo , Ovoko had the highest percent prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides (9.3 %), hookworm (6.0 %) and Trichuris trichiura (2.3 %). The least per cent prevalence of A. lumbricoides was recorded in Community Primary School, Iheakpu-Awka (2.3 %), while the least per cent prevalence of hookworm occurred in Community Primary School 3 Itchi. T. trichiura was not recorded in community primary schools in Itchi, Unadu and Iheakpu-Awka. Similarly, the prevalence of these parasitic helminths varied signi icantly among the age groups (P < 0 05), with age groups 4 – 6 highly infected w th A. lumbricoides (7.0 %), 13 – 15 w h hookworm (3.7 %) and 7 – 9 w th T. tr chiura (1.2 %). T. tr chiura was absent in stool samp es of 4 – 6 and 13 – 15 age groups. The prevalence of these intestinal parasites also varied significantly between the sexes with fema es having comparatively more A. lumbricoides (5.4 %), hookworm (3.2 %) and T. trichiura (0.8 %) than males. Our study indicated that intestinal helminthiasis was prevalent in the area, and as such, control measures such as chemo herapy, provision o adequate sanitary facil ties and potable drinking water, improved personal hygiene and health educa ion should be the focus of non-governmental and governmental health institutions in Nigeria.
ABSTRACT The aetiology and epidemiology of African trypanosomiasis in bovine species are comprehensively presented. In addition, a critical review o the history and transmission of the disease is exhaustively discussed. The mystery of other epizootiological factors associated with bovine trypanosomiasis is highlighted. Four major elements were identif ed as important in the epizootiology of African animal trypanosomiasis namely the trypanosome, the tsetse f y the mammalian host and the environmental factors. It was concluded that the phenomenon of high rate of resistance referred to as trypanosotolerance has genetic correspondence.
ABSTRACT: Trypanosomiasis is of great interest to farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a disease that retards agricultural development in general and needs urgent atten ion. It has been noted that it causes aneamia in its host which often may lead to death. Many researches showed that dietary supplement can enhance trypanotolerance in various hosts. Diet is important in modulating the severity of its pathophysiological ef ects and can also influence the rate of recovery. Using a control diet (Diet 1)) was only chicks’ mash. this research was conducted to determine the effect of moderate protein (mixture of 250 g of corn meal, 240 g of soyabean meal and 10 g of crayfish meal in chicks’ marsh (Diet 2)), high dietary protein (mixture o 400 g o caseinogen and 300 g o soyabean meal in chicks’ mash (Diet 3)) and high dietary carbohydrate (mixture of 400 g of dextrose and 300 g of corn meal in chicks’ mash (Diet 4)) supplementat on on rodent trypanomias s. D et 1 was used to feed rats in Cage A Diet 2 was used to feed rats in Cage B Diet 3 was used to feed rats in Cage C while Diet 4 was used to feed rats in Cage D. At the end of the experiment, it was observed that rats fed with Diet 2 (moderate protein diet) had the highest and significantly different (P < 0 05) red blood cell count than other treatments. This indicated that adequate nutrition reduces the effect of trypanosome and hence trypanotolerance in rats since trypanosome is known to attack red blood cells and vascular endothelium.
ABSTRACT The performance response and egg qualities o laying birds fed enzyme supplemented PKC diets as replacement for maize was investigated w th 210, 20 week old lay ng pullets of Dominant Black strain at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria. The birds which ust come into lay were randomly allotted into seven dietary groups of 30 each in three replicates. The experiment was conducted for 11 weeks. Dietary treatments significantly (p<0.05) affected feed intake, Hen day percent, Egg weight, Feed efficiency (Kg feed: Kg eggs) and cost o feed per egg Final l ve weight and body weight gains at end of the experiment were similar (p<0.05) among treatments. On egg qualities, only Haugh unit was significant y (p<0.05) improved with increased level of PKC which appeared to be better as rate of enzyme supplementation increases. The differences observed in the experiment on performance parameters appeared not to have established a consistence trend to strongly assert a conclusion but are indicative of the possibility o replacing maize with PKC in a laying birds diet up to 40 % when supplemented with Hemicell l f f ® enzyme. Other enzyme application methods may be investigated to see if better performance response trend can be achieved.