Entries on Biochemistry
Pests have continued to be problematic in warehouses of most feed mills and food manufacturing industres. Pests are heterogeneous both in space and time, creating gradients and patterns depending on the prevailing environmental variables. Pest control efforts have utilized manipulations of these variables. This project is ona module for thermal control of pests using the hitherto waste steam from the indusries. The module is an engineering contraption, which uses steam to raise temperature within it to insecticidal levels (above 45°C). This causes halt in development and proein denaturing (leading to mortality) of the pests (eggs, larvae and adults). This applied heat also toasts the material inside the module thereby improving its quality. The module consists of a rotary drum with steam passing through convoluted tube (without coming in contact withthe handledmaterial), with a capacity o 2 tons/hr o commodities. It accepts steam at 130°C and discharges it at 110°C. The steam pressure (permssible) is 2.7 bars. Steam velocity is 8m/s. The volume of the drum is 4 m3. A two- screw- 90 degrees-lead –counter screw-rotation typebaffle is installed to achieve even distribution of heat on the material within the drum. The moduleis efficient, effective and useful in any integrated pest management effort.
The length-weight relatonship and condition factor of four mormyrid species namely Mormyrus rume, Hyperopisus bebe, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Gnathonemus petersii from Anambra river were investigated from October 2002 to March 2004. In al400 species M. rume, 384 H. bebe417 C. tamandua and 335 G. petersii were sampled for the study Length-weigh relationship showed that the exponent “b,’ were 3.067, 2.459, 3.201 and 3.114 for M. rume, H. bebe, C. tamandua and G. petersii respectively. The mormyrid species studied with exception of H. bebe exhibited isometric growth and the correlation coefficients were positive and highly sgnificant (P < 0.05). The condtion factor (k) varied from 0.69 ± 0.22 in G. petersii to 1.17 ± 0.59 in M. rume. There were no significant difference in the mean condition facor between themales and females inall the mormyrid species. The importance of condition factor in the breeding activities o the mormyrid species revealed that not much energy s diverted into gonad synthesis and maturation during the breeding cycle season.
Octanol/water partition coefficient and bioaccumulation index of Bonny light crude oil, having a ractonal percentage composition of 81.11 saturate, 7.20 aromatcs, 2.48 ashphaltene and 9.21 residues, were studied in microcosm aquaria using a fresh water catfish Clarias agboyiensis. The partition coefficient (Kf iiii tow) of the crude oil was evaluated to be 0.74. The mean bioaccumulation values of the petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in the homogenates of the whole fish, liver and kdney at intervals of 24, 72 and 120 hours were respectvely 0.845 ± 0.118, 11.0 ± 0.058 and 15.0 ± 0.064 after exposing the whole fishto sedimentand water, respectively containing 31 μg/g and 190 μg/l of the crude oil in the aquarium. The mean bioaccumulation values of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in the tissue homogenates of the exposed fish were higher than in the control (p<0.05), thus suggesing that Bonny light crude oil with Kow of 0.74 could be lipophilic.
The prevalence of caprine strongyle infections and the diagnostic efficacy of some culture media in supporting the recovery of strongyle larvae were evaluated using 840 faecal sampes collected from goats during slaughter at Maiduguri Metropolitan abattoir. Faecal examination conducted by the modfied McMaster technique revealed that outof 840 goats examined, 708 (83.8 %) shedded strongyle eggs in their faeces. The prevalence of infection was significantly (P < 005) higher among female, young and diarrhoeic goats than their corresponding male, adult and non-diarrheic counterparts. Faecal culture and larval recovery using the test tube filter paper technique revealedthat the direct culture o faecal samples without any additional culture medium supported the recovery of the largest number of nematode infecve larvae from the faeces. When this was used as a standard (100% egg hatch or 0% reduction in egg hatch), larval recovery was highest (P<0.05) from goat faeces (98.4 %) folowed respectively by sheep faeces (57.7 %), cow faeces (52.4 %), horse faeces (42.3 %) and so (18.6 %) as culture media. The results therefore indicatethe superor diagnostic quality o goat faeces as a culture medium for the recovery of infective nematode stages in goat faeces.
The susceptibility of 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were evaluated in laboratory. Larval mortality was assessed 24 hour afterexposure. The result showed that the LDi, .50 values for Aedes aegypti exposed to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were 0.48, 37.09 and 0.29 μg per liter respectvely. The LD50 values for Culex quinquefasciatus of exposed to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were 0.11 10.05 and 005 μg per liter respectively.
The introduction of forage legumes into grass pastures has generally improved grazing animal production by increasing total edible biomass and nutrient profiles. An experiment was designed tostudy the performance of sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum in combination with Gliricidia sepium. Eighteen paddocks of approximately 0.03 ha were used in the tra Nine of the paddocks had Gliricidia sepium alley planted in rows 4 mapart and interplanted with 4 rows of either Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum, or Pennisetum purpureum. The other nine paddocks had only the grass species withoutthe Gliricidia sepium. The paddocks were each grazed by 3 sheep. The pure grass stands without the Gliricidia sepium served as controls for the grass species in combination with Gliricidia sepium. The three grasses and their combinations within the alley plots were replicated three times.The animals weregrazed continuously for 28 days in the sub plots. Sheep grazing the Gliricidia/Panicum plot had a higher (P < 001) growth rate (38 g d-1) than those animals grazing both the Gliricidia/Bracharia (23 g d-1) and Gliricida/Pennisetum (21 g d-1) plots respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sheep grazing the Gliricidia/Bracharia and Gliricidia/Pennisetum plots. The total dry matter intake of sheep on the Gliricidia/Panicum plot was higher (P < 005) (1.33 kg DM d-1) than that of sheep on Gliricidia/Bracharia (0.86 kg DM d-1) and Gliricidia/Pennisetum (0.43 kg DM d-1) plots respectivey. The total biomass from the Gliricidia/Bracharia (23 t ha -1)and Gliricidia/Panicum (21 t ha -1) plots respectively were higher (P < 001) than the total biomass from the Gliricidia/Pennisetum ( 13 t ha -1) plo. These results demonstrate that grazing West African dwarf sheep in a Gliricidia sepium/Panicum maximum plot improved their growth rate during dry season when feed supplies are limited. It also underscores the poor performance of animals
Hereditary disorders of erythrocytes are common in many areas of the world, including Cameroon Limited knowledge on the consequences of high incidences of sickle haemoglobin (HbS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency genes in the Cameroons might have been responsible for the haemoglobin genotype mismatched marriages among the sickle heterozygotes and drug-induced anaemia among the G6PD deficient individuals ignorantly treated wth oxidant drugs having high redox potential. The situation therefore, informed the random screening of the populace of the North West and South West populatons of Cameroon for these genes wth a view not only to reveal their current incidences and level of interaction but also to educate the people onthe consequences of these genetic defects. Our results revealed the total incidences of 32.20 % sickle and 1161 % G6PD deficiency genes. The percentage frequency of the sickle cell gene was higher in the South western (1880 %) than in the North West (1451 %) populations. The percentage incidence o G6PD deficiency was 921 % and 120 % for males and females respectvely in the North West and 10.85 % and 1.46 % for males and females respectively in the South West. The interaction was not sgnificant (P > 0.01) between G6PD deficiency and HbS for the North West and South West populatons. These genetic defects must have reached polymorphiclevels due to natural selection through survival advantage against death from malaria and consanguineous marriages.
The effects o alcohol consumption on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were investigated in the alloxan induced dabetic rats. Plasma from the diabetic rats not treated with alcohol (DNT); diabetic rats treated with alcohol (DT) and non diabetic rats (ND) were analysed for their malondialdelyde (MDA) and vitamin C levels. Both the glucose level and the body weightwere alsostudied. The mean weights o the rats in the diferent groups were the same until the onset o diabetes and alcohol ingestion when the weight decreased. After nine (9) days of alcohol suppementaton, the DT rats weighed114.00 ± 0.41 g and the DNT rats weghed 121.00 ± 1.22 gwhile the rats in the controlled group weighed 146.33 014 g. The glucose levels for DT, DNT and ND were 29.56, ± 0.56, 28.81 ± 0.87 and 5.42 ± 0.19 nmol/ respectvely. Analyss of the lipd peroxidaton product (MDA) obtained showed a significant (P < 005) increase in MDA values from – DT rate (38.63 ± 3.88) nmol/ml to DNT rats (2863 ± 1.38 nmol/lml), whle MDA value for ND rats was 7.88 ± 1.38 nmol/l. Plasma vitamin C vaues of 0.62 ± 0.05 mg/100ml 1.107 " 0.13 mg/100ml and 1.79 ± 0.15 mg/100mlor DT, DNT and ND respectvely were obtaned.
The systemic availability of a drug is the amount of administered drug which reaches the systemic circulation intact (Graham-Smith and Aronson, 1992). Measurement of drug concentration in the blood and urine are performed to determine the need for adjustment of the dosage or of the schedule of administration (Saganuwan et al., 2003).
Diabetes mellitus may be caused and or exacerbated by certain chemicals or compounds which elicit oxidative stress (Traverso et al., 1999, Ogugua, 2000) in the exposed individual.
Cassia occiden alis (Caesalpiniaceae) is a small tree growing 5 – 8 metres in height (Blumgarten, 1937). The leaves are compound, composite, paripinnate with 5 – 8 pairs of leaflets usually oval.