Entries on Bacteria
Mosquito control strategies adopted by the residents of two Ishiagu Communities (Okue and Ihie)were investgated. 53 households in Okue and 54 in Ihie were sampled. Simple structured questionnaires were prepared and administered. Percentages and chi square (X2) test of significance was employed in analysing the data. The result revealed that 429 % of the residents of the two communities used insecticides, 25.2% used mosquito coils, 6.5% used smoke of local herbs and 5.6% were insensitive to mosquito nuisance and careless about mosquito control. Choice of control measures by residents of the two communities were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Occupational related preferences revealed that farmers ranked highest in the use of insecticides and coils (21.5%) each. 131% of teachers use insecticides and 37% use nettings. Statistical analysis of the occupational related choice patterns was significant (P < 005).
The prevalence of caprine strongyle infections and the diagnostic efficacy of some culture media in supporting the recovery of strongyle larvae were evaluated using 840 faecal sampes collected from goats during slaughter at Maiduguri Metropolitan abattoir. Faecal examination conducted by the modfied McMaster technique revealed that outof 840 goats examined, 708 (83.8 %) shedded strongyle eggs in their faeces. The prevalence of infection was significantly (P < 005) higher among female, young and diarrhoeic goats than their corresponding male, adult and non-diarrheic counterparts. Faecal culture and larval recovery using the test tube filter paper technique revealedthat the direct culture o faecal samples without any additional culture medium supported the recovery of the largest number of nematode infecve larvae from the faeces. When this was used as a standard (100% egg hatch or 0% reduction in egg hatch), larval recovery was highest (P<0.05) from goat faeces (98.4 %) folowed respectively by sheep faeces (57.7 %), cow faeces (52.4 %), horse faeces (42.3 %) and so (18.6 %) as culture media. The results therefore indicatethe superor diagnostic quality o goat faeces as a culture medium for the recovery of infective nematode stages in goat faeces.
The antibacterial sensitivity test showed that the inhibitory effect of the ethanolic extract on E.coli>Salmonella typhi>Proteus vulgaris with mean zones of inhibition of 6.643, 5.71 and 4.57mm respectively while that of the aqueous extract, Salmonella typhi> Proteus vulgaris>E.coli with mean zones of inhibition of 4.57, 0.86 and 0.00mm respectively. The null hypothesis was accepted; ethanoic extract and aqueous extract had inhibitory activity against the three organisms at 95% confidence interval. In comparing the activity of the two extracts, there is a significant difference between the activity of the aqueous extract and ethanolic extract against these bacteria at 95% confidence level in this order of concentration 62.5>1000 and 750mg/ml>negative control i.e. there is no significant difference in the activity between the two extracts at 500, 250 and125mg/ml. This implies that at 500, 250 and 125mg/ml there was a significant antibacterial activity against the clinical isolates irrespective of the extract used. From the mean plots, it can be deduced that the activity of the treatments is not dependent on concentration as the measure of susceptibility did not follow an increase or decrease in concentration. With both extract, S.typhi was best inhibited at 500mg/ml. E.coli was best inhibited at 1000mg/ml for ethanolic extract but not inhibited by aqueous, it cannot therefore be concluded that the aqueous extract has no effect on E.coli because a higher concentration of the aqueous extract might inhibit E.coli. Proteus vulgaris had best inhibition at 500mg/ml for ethanol extract and 500 and 250mg/ml for aqueous extract. It can be said that both extract would work best at 500mg/ml of treatment for the bacteria especially P.vulgaris and Salmonella typhi, though a higher concentration is suspected to have activity against E.coli.