Entries on Animals
ABSTRACT: Antagonistic effects of ce triaxone and sulphadimidine on ketamine and thiopentone anaesthetics were studied in Nigerian local dogs. Twenty – four N gerian local dogs were used for the study. The dogs were divided into s x groups: A, B, C, D E, and F, with four dogs per group. Groups A and B were intravenously administered 17 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg body weight f thiopentone and ketamine respect vely. But groups C and D were administered 23 mg/kg and 100mg/kg body weight of ceftriaxone and sulphadimidine respectively in addition to 20 mg/kg body weight of ketamine. However, groups E and F were administered intravenous dose of 23 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of ceftriaxone and sulphadimidine respectively in addition to 17 mg/kg weight body of thiopentone. Vital parameters such as determination of anesthesia; onset and duration, temperature, respiratory and heart rates were recorded. The results of onset of duration of anesthesia revealed significant difference (P< 0.05) among group E, F and A animals. Although the result of onset anesthesia revealed significant difference between group A and B animals (P < 0.05). The values of respiratory rate revealed significant difference between the animals in groups D and B as well as groups F and A (P < 0.05). The values of heart rate showed significant difference between group C and D animals as well as between E and A animals (P < 0.05). Conclusively, sulphadimid ne and cerftriaxone caused decreased duration of both anesthesia and onset of anesthesia when either was coadministered with ketamine or thiopentone in Nigerian local dogs. Sulphad midine also caused increased respiratory rate, but cerftriaxone caused decreased and increased heart rate if coadministered with ketamine and thiopentone respectively..."
The prevalence of caprine strongyle infections and the diagnostic efficacy of some culture media in supporting the recovery of strongyle larvae were evaluated using 840 faecal sampes collected from goats during slaughter at Maiduguri Metropolitan abattoir. Faecal examination conducted by the modfied McMaster technique revealed that outof 840 goats examined, 708 (83.8 %) shedded strongyle eggs in their faeces. The prevalence of infection was significantly (P < 005) higher among female, young and diarrhoeic goats than their corresponding male, adult and non-diarrheic counterparts. Faecal culture and larval recovery using the test tube filter paper technique revealedthat the direct culture o faecal samples without any additional culture medium supported the recovery of the largest number of nematode infecve larvae from the faeces. When this was used as a standard (100% egg hatch or 0% reduction in egg hatch), larval recovery was highest (P<0.05) from goat faeces (98.4 %) folowed respectively by sheep faeces (57.7 %), cow faeces (52.4 %), horse faeces (42.3 %) and so (18.6 %) as culture media. The results therefore indicatethe superor diagnostic quality o goat faeces as a culture medium for the recovery of infective nematode stages in goat faeces.
Crude oil and its products can cause damage to aquatic ecosystem in a number of ways. Oxygen is not soluble in oil and therefore does not easily pass through even when a thin of oil is present on water.
The effects of exposing Heterobranchus bidorsalis juveniles (14.08 ± 0.12 g) to diferent concentrations of Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO) on amylase and cretinine kinase activities were studied The exposure of the fsh to 1.00, 2.00, 400, 8.00 ml L-1 BLCO and a control for 4 days toxicity period indicated that the signiicant increases (P < 0.01) in the serum amylase (SRA) and the hepatic cytosolic amylase (HCA) activities in the fish were BLCO concentrations dependent.
Permanent light will reduce the prolactin level. It seems to be one of the causes of short estrous cycles in permanent light is prolactin levels. These finding can be used as a model in human societies.
Laboratory animal experimentation is an important tool for the investigation and understanding of various biological principles and study of human and animal disease mechanisms.
ABSTRACT The effect of Vernonia amygdalina aqueous leaf extract on serum glucose and triglyceride level of diabetic rats were investigated. The aqueous extract was administered to alloxan –diabetic rats. The b ood glucose and serum triglyceride levels were estimated at time intervals post oral administration of the extract (80 mg/kg). The extract caused significant (P<0.05) and progressive time dependent reduction of blood glucose and serum triglyceride levels in both normoglyceamic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, with similar time course of action. In conclusion, the significant reduction in b ood glucose and serum triglyceride level observed in this study may help in alleviating some of the complications associated with diabetic conditions.
Research shows that poor governance, illiteracy, disease and lack of political will are the major factors hindering development. Our government need act now!
Environmental factors play significant roles in the determination and operations of the budgetary system in Nigeria. In the Nigerian Financial system law and order usually play a pivotal role. Hence, the system is hedged about with legal restriction and governmental order. Generally, environment can be viewed as all the condition, circumstances and influences affecting the development of and activities of the local government. These factors among others include industrial, socio-economic and political environment affecting the attitudes and work ethics/behaviours at work. It is within this milieu of interactions factor that the actors in the budgetary system is entrenched. In an ideal situation, budgetary process is said to be peoples’ driven when it calls for a consultative forum where stakeholders express their feeling relating to previous budget and present their inputs and priorities which form the part of existing budget. This process will go a long way in assisting and updating Elected Officers, Ministries, Departments and Agencies towards budgetary preparation. However, it is surprising that since 1999, Civil Societies, Nigerians and other well-meaning organizations in Nigeria, have made tireless effort to access the proposed Federal government budgetary estimations to guide them. But such has proved abortive; as the Government denied them meaningful contribution to the budgetary process. Apart from this, in two different occasions, the Presidency has failed in its attempt attempts to present the proposed budget before the National Assembly for scrutiny; only to be postponed at eleventh hour due to one or two reasons best known to presidency. This has posed series of confusions and doubt about effective execution and implementation of the draft estimation. The paper notes that the ecology of the budgetary system in Nigeria determines to a great extent its effectiveness as well as pattern. On the other hand, governments through their activities influence their environment. The paper concludes that the influence is reciprocal.