Animal Science

Animal Science

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Entries on Animal Science

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyces on Haematological Characteristics of Rattus Novergicus

Effects of Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Calyces on Haematological Characteristics of Rattus Novergicus

The ability of the extract to increase Hb, PCV, RBC and its indices suggests possible usefulness of the extract in treating anaemia.

 
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The Effect of Homoplastic Pituitary Injection Overdose on Induced Spawning of African Catfish  Clarias Gariepinus,  Burchell 1822

The Effect of Homoplastic Pituitary Injection Overdose on Induced Spawning of African Catfish Clarias Gariepinus, Burchell 1822

ABSTRACT: Twelve pairs of male and female African catfish, Clarias gariepinus broodfish were monthly treated with graded doses of crude homoplastic pituitary injection. Different sets o pairs were used for each month, after certifying their gonadal maturity fitness for induced breeding. The first two pairs of spawners received one pituitary gland (3.8 – 5.7 mg) each from donors having equivalent body weight. The second two pairs received two glands (7.2 –11 3 g), the third two pairs received three g ands (10.1 – 16.2 mg) the fourth two pa rs received four glands (13.5 – 22.2 mg) and the fifth two pairs received five g ands (17 7 – 27.5 mg) the sixth two pairs (contro ) were not injected Each spawning pair was kept in concrete spawning tank for 24 hours for natural spawning to take place. Administration of one pitui ary injection fai ed to induce spawning, two and three glands yielded optimum results. Four and five yielded good spawning but all the hatchlings died after hatching. Death may be attributed to over secretion of thyroxin, thus leading to faculty vitellogenesis.

 
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Entomological and Transmission Risk Indices of Malaria Vectors in Selected Communities in Osun State, Nigeria

Entomological and Transmission Risk Indices of Malaria Vectors in Selected Communities in Osun State, Nigeria

All female Anopheles identified fed on human blood but tested negative to Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite antigen. The PCR analysis showed a predominance of An. gambiae s.s. (95%) over An. arabiensis (5%). The preponderance of indoor resting An. gambiae s.s and the incidence of exophilic An. arabiensis suggest a combination of IRS and long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for this region.

 
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Risk Factors Associated With Canine Parvovirus   Enteritis in Vom and Environs

Risk Factors Associated With Canine Parvovirus Enteritis in Vom and Environs

ABSTRACT: A study was carried out to assess the effects of age, sex, breed, location of cases and tick infestation on the prevalence o canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis in dogs treated in the Veterinary Clinic of the National Veterinary Research Institute Vom between July 1999 and July 2002 A case control study design was used to assess the association between the risk factors and the disease. Out of 3075 dogs examined during the period, 87 had CPV enteritis (2.8%). Dogs between 0 to 5 months of age had elevated risk (OR = 25.14; 95% CI = 9 74, 67.26%). Other factors did not significantly affect the occurrence of the disease. The disease was most prevalent in May and June with a lesser peak in January. Age and seasonal variation should be considered in p anning a control programme.

 
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Impacts of Crude Oil on Freshwater Fish Fauna, Its Control and Management Measures

Impacts of Crude Oil on Freshwater Fish Fauna, Its Control and Management Measures

Control measures suggested include strict supervision of loading and off-loading of oil tankers, repairing of oil pipelines and damaged tankers, placing stringent measures on oil and oil-related industries and oil refineries conducting assays to assess the effect of refinery effluents on aquatic life. This work concludes by indicating that oil in water is lethal leading to impairment of fish physiology. As a result, mortality increases and fishery resources decrease.

 
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Metals and Mineral Nutrient Concentration in  Orechromis Nilot Cus,  Clarias Gariepinus  and  Chrysichthys Furcatus  From Benue River, Makurdi, Nigeria

Metals and Mineral Nutrient Concentration in Orechromis Nilot Cus, Clarias Gariepinus and Chrysichthys Furcatus From Benue River, Makurdi, Nigeria

ABSTRACT: Concentration of five metals and minerals, Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Ammonia (NH3), phosphate(P04) were determined in three species, of fish from the Benue River (Orechromis niloticus, Clarias gariepinus and Chrysichthys furcatus), at four different sampling stations. The evels of metals and minerals were assayed from the muscle, liver, kidney and intest ne and gills of the three species. Differences in all means concentration of metals and minerals were analyzed using F-LSD and comparisons were made between stations and the fish species, significant difference were shown between values of iron and ammonia nitrogen amongst the species and between upstream stations and downstream stations respectively.

 
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Haemonchosis and Haemoparasites of Small Ruminants Reared in North Western, Nigeria

Haemonchosis and Haemoparasites of Small Ruminants Reared in North Western, Nigeria

Small ruminants (goats and sheep) production systems worldwide are significantly constrained by haemo and gastrointestinal parasites. The study was carried out in North-western Nigeria from November 2011 to October 2012 with the aim to identify the common haemoparasites and haemonchosis in small ruminants. Three hundred abomasum samples with corresponding blood samples were collected from 200 goats and 100 sheep, respectively at necropsy. The abomasa were examined by Hansen and Perry method for the presence of Haemonchus contortus while blood samples were examined using the thin blood smear and Haematocrit Centrifugation Techniques (HCT). The prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants was 80.3% with goats and sheep having prevalence of 78% and 85%, respectively. The prevalence for H. contortus in small ruminants during late dry, early dry, late rain and early rain were 64.9%, 84.1%, 89.9% and 81.1%, respectively. The prevalence were statistically significant among the seasons (p<0.05) with highest prevalence in the late rainy season. The total number of adult worms collected was 21862. The highest adult worm burdens were obtained during late rainy season (August to October) when a mean worm burden of 180.2 ± 51.45 and PCV of 26.63 ± 0.63 were recorded. The mean worm burdens for early dry, late dry and early rain were 42.60 ± 6.93, 31.67 ± 5.56 and 61.10 ± 11.33, respectively. The PCV values for the season were 27.73 ± 0.79, 26.60 ± 0.87 and 28.40 ± 0.65, respectively. The values of PCV for the four sub-seasons were not significant from one another but the value of PCV obtained during early rain was different from those of other sub-seasons. The PCV had a weak negative correlation with worm burdens with Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.2632 which was highly significant (p<0.001). Out of 200 goats and 100 sheep examined for haemoparasites, only one goat had heavy infection with Trypanosoma vivax and a sheep had mixed infection with Theileria ovis and A

 
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Impacts of Crude Oil on Freshwater Fish Fauna, Its Control and Management Measures

Impacts of Crude Oil on Freshwater Fish Fauna, Its Control and Management Measures

Control measures suggested include strict supervision of loading and off-loading of oil tankers, repairing of oil pipelines and damaged tankers, placing stringent measures on oil and oil-related industries and oil refineries conducting assays to assess the effect of refinery effluents on aquatic life. This work concludes by indicating that oil in water is lethal leading to impairment of fish physiology. As a result, mortality increases and fishery resources decrease.

 
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Morphometric Variations Among Three  Distichodus  Species of Anambra River, Nigeria

Morphometric Variations Among Three Distichodus Species of Anambra River, Nigeria

ABSTRACT: Studies on the morphometric variations of three Distichodus species namely D. rostratus, D. brevip nnis and D. engycephalus from Anambra river were investigated from November 2002 to October 2003. Fish specimens were collected monthly at Otuocha and Ogurugu area using hook and line, traps, baskets, gillnets, dragnets, surface drift nets and cast nests of various mesh sizes. Specific differences among the Distichodus species occurred in 2 raw characters; pelvic fin height and pectoral-pelvic fin space and 6 ratio (transformed) characters notably pelvic fin height, anal fin height, pectoral-pelvic fin space, pelvic-anal fin space, head length and caudal peduncle depth. Sexual dimorphism occurred in two ratio characters namely pectoral-pelvic fin space and pelvicanal fin space among Distichodus brevipinnis. These characters are recommended as key characters in the taxonomy of Distichodus.

 
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Immunologic and Haematologic Effects of Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Azadihiracta Indica on Chickens Experimentally Infected With Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (Kudu 113) Strain

Immunologic and Haematologic Effects of Methanolic Stem Bark Extract of Azadihiracta Indica on Chickens Experimentally Infected With Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (Kudu 113) Strain

The study was aimed at evaluating the weight, haematologic and immunologic effects of crude methanolic stem bark extract of Azadihiracta indica stem bark on vaccinated chickens experimentally challenged with the velogenic Newcastle disease virus. One hundred day old cockerels were randomly divided into four equal groups (I, II, III and IV). Birds in all groups were vaccinated with La Sota strain of Newcastle disease vaccine. The birds were challenged with the velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (VNDV) at 42 days of age. Following challenge, groups I, II and III were given oral treatment of methanolic stem bark extract of Azadihiracta indica at 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg, respectively until day 56 of age, while group IV was not given the treatment. Thereafter, birds in all the groups were assessed for onset of clinical signs, changes in live body weight, humoral immune responses and haematologic changes. The birds in groups I, II and III showed no sign of Newcastle disease while birds in group IV exhibited mild depression and huddling. The mean body weight of the vaccinated-treated groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the vaccinated-untreated group on day 56 of age. On days 63 and 70 of age, the mean body weight of group III was significantly higher than groups I and II. The mean haemagglutination inhibition titres of group III was significantly higher (p<0.05) than groups I, II and IV. The mean PCV, Hb and RBC values of the vaccinated-treated group was significantly (p>0.05) higher than the vaccinated-untreated group on day 49 of age. The WBC count of groups I and II were significantly higher (p>0.05) than groups III and IV on days 49 and 56 of age. The mean absolute heterophil counts of vaccinated-treated groups was significantly (p>0.05) higher than the vaccinated-untreated group on days 56 and 63 of age. The mean absolute lymphocyte counts of the vaccinated-treated increased significantly (p>0.05) than that of vaccinated-untreated

 
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Bioaccumulation and Toxic Effects of Some Heavy Metals in Freshwater Fishes

Bioaccumulation and Toxic Effects of Some Heavy Metals in Freshwater Fishes

Fishes bioaccumulate heavy metals (including cadmium, zinc, lead and copper) through various organs such as gills, liver, stomach and intestine. The effects of these heavy metals are highlighted.

 
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Parasitological Identification and Histological Examination of Fasciola Gigantica Sequel to Occurrence of Bovine Billiary Fasciolosis in Cattle Slaughtered at Bodija Abattoir, Ibadan

Parasitological Identification and Histological Examination of Fasciola Gigantica Sequel to Occurrence of Bovine Billiary Fasciolosis in Cattle Slaughtered at Bodija Abattoir, Ibadan

Fasciola gigantica is the parasitic fluke causing tropical fasciolosis leading to great economic losses in cattle production in Nigeria. One hundred and five (105) flukes were collected and identified after careful examination of the bile ducts from twenty one (21) infected slaughtered cattle out of a total of two hundred (200) cattle examined from Bodija Municipal Abattoir. Semichon’s Acetic-Carmine staining technique and histological examination was carried out for parasitic identification while simple faecal floatation and sedimentation techniques was done for parasite egg examination. Postmortem examination showed enlarged and friable liver covered with fibrin tags while bile ducts were thickened, distended and packed with adult flukes when sliced open. Microscopic and histological examination revealed greyish-brown leaf-shaped adult Fasciola gigantica flukes, bearing a cone shaped projection and a pair of broad shoulders with the intestinal ceca branched as well as the testes and the ovary. The vitelline follicles fill the lateral fields of the worm and the common genital pore just anterior to the acetabulum. Large Fasciola gigantica eggs which are oval, yellowish to greenish in colour and bears a polar operculum. Public enlightenment especially among the butchers and abattoir workers should be periodical on the public health importance of the parasite and how unwholesome abattoir practices can lead to accidental human infection. This will greatly reduce the practice of selling infected organ that have been deemed unfit for human consumption.

 
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