Entries on Animal Science
Nutritional status of female reproducing animals before and during gestation affects the offspring. Carbohydrate, protein and micronutrients deficiencies in female either before conception or in early pregnancy have been implicated in causing low birth weight in offspring (Galloway et al., 1994).
This study aimed to estimate germ cell types and number per sertoli cell of an indigenous Iranian goat (Lori goat). Semen was collected from five Lori goats by means of an artificial vagina. Semen volume, concentration, normality and motility of spermatozoa were determined. After removing both testes, tissue paraffin section (5μ thickness) were prepared and stained using Haematoxylin and Eosin method.
Global meat consumption rate had doubled in most countries over the last five decades. In Ghana, total animal production has also increased over the last decade with consumption of pork and its offals becoming prominent. Therefore this study aims to evaluate factors that influence consumer preference for pig offals and the associated public health risks. One hundred (100) respondents in the Kumasi Metropolis were randomly selected through structured questionnaires and samples of offals randomly collected, sectioned, processed and examined for any histopathological indicators. Data collected were analyzed through the use of descriptive statistical tools. The results showed that edible offal preferential consumption exist within the increasing demand and value supply chain with the liver (32%) and stomach (23%) being the most preferred offal. Factors such as nutritional value, delicacy, availability, cost and level of education are noted to influence the purchasing power and preference of consumers. The consumers are less conscious regarding the risks stemming from the common zoonotic diseases and health concerns. Histological assessment of the most preferred offals (liver) showed no remarkable histopathological changes. Based on this, the preference for pig livers may not be associated with considerate health risk.
Other available methods include:- Fluorescence microscopy, which has improved the sensitivity, but not the specificity of diagnosis, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) diagnosis, which is sensitive for all four species of human Plasmodium spp. and can be expected to exceed the sensitivity of microscopy; but poses time and technical problems, Immunochromatographic dipsticks that offer the possibility of more rapid, non-microscopic methods for malaria diagnosis, thereby saving on training, time and Self-diagnosis. Kits for self-diagnosis by travellers in remote areas has been developed.
The plant extracts similarly exerted significant reduction in the haemozoin concentration. Nevertheless, Alstonia boonei extract was the most effective in haemozoin reduction at 0.00 significant level (p<0.05). Of all the therapeutants (chemical and plant extracts) tested, Alstonia boonei stem back extract most significantly reduced haemozoin production (p<0.05), indicating its potential for use in novel anti-plasmodium and antimalaria drug formulation.
This study investigated the possible hepatoprotective effect of quail egg solution on acetaminophen intoxicated rats. Thirty adult rats of mixed sexes were assigned into five groups of six per group. The rats in groups 2, 3, and 4 were pretreated with 30, 15, 7.5 mg/ml ad lib respectively of quail egg solution for 7 days before intoxication with 2000 mg/kg acetaminophen. Rats in group 5 were not pretreated but intoxicated with 2000 mg/kg acetaminophen (negative control) while the group 1 rats were neither pretreated nor intoxicated and served as positive control. Fourty eight hours post induction, blood for some biochemical and haematological analysis was collected and the remaining rats treated until 14th day when the rats were humanely sacrificed and vital organs (liver and kidney) collected for histopathology. The results showed that the ALT activity of 30 mg/ml pretreated rats were significantly (p<0.05) lower than those of the negative control rats. Significant (p<0.05) increases were seen in the RBC, WBC, PCV and Hb levels of quail egg pretreated rats when compared with the negative control. However no significant (p>0.05) changes were seen in AST activity, MCHC and MCH levels of both the test groups and the controls. Histomorphometry examination revealed less severe vacuolar degenerative changes in the liver of 30 mg/ml pretreated rats when compared to the rats of other intoxicated groups. It was concluded that quail egg at the concentration of 30 mg/ml ameliorated hepatotoxicity and improved haematologic indices of acetaminophen-induced toxicity in rats.
ABSTRACT: Seedlings of Okra Abelmoschus esculentus were inoculated with different numbers of egg masses (0, 4 8 and 12) of Meloidogyne incognita. The different inoculums elicited varied reactions on the Okra plants. Root galls increased progressively and significantly with increased levels of inoculum. At 0 (zero) inoculum level no root gall was observed. At low inoculum levels, 4 and 8 egg masses, the plants performed seemingly better than the control (in terms o plant dry weight, f ower and fruit production). At high inoculum levels very low mean yields of the above parameters were recoded when compared to the control. The implications of enhanced per ormance observed at low inoculum levels on experimental crops are discoursed.
Serum AST, ALT and ALP activities were significantly (p < 0.05) higher during the rainy season while serum urea and cholesterol levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher during the dry season.
Eastern Nigeria. Dental abrasions with prevalence rate o 37 3 %, attrit on (31.3 %), calculus (87.5 %), caries (78.8 %), g ngivit s (62.6 %), gum recession (53.8 %), halitosis (82.7 %), periodont t s (52.6 %), stains (78.6 %) and teeth erosions (24.8 %) were the specific dental disorders observed in the area.
Those that used wells and streams as main source of water had an infection of 96.9%. Inadequate basic social amenities have contributed to the spread of parasite in the area. Government should make available the much needed amenities to the populace to alleviate the spread of the diseases in the study area and should also create public awareness on the dangers of the disease.
The study was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary protein level needed for growing genetically male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Diets containing crude protein levels 40, 42.5, 45, 47.5 and 50% were formulated and tried in triplicates. Test diets were fed to 20 fish/1m3 floating hapa at 5% of fish body weight daily for 24 weeks. Survival of fish was not affected by dietary protein levels. Growth rate varied inversely with dietary protein levels to a maximum at 40%. Protein utilization and turnover decreased with increasing protein levels in diets. Quadratic regression analysis of growth indices against protein inclusion levels indicated that the optimum dietary protein required for maximum growth was 40%.This result also paralleled the least values of protein and calorie deposited for 40% protein level whereas the other levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher. The study concludes that 47.5% and 50% protein levels may depress tilapia growth and feed utilization, while 40% protein gave optimum growth.
Crude oil and its products can cause damage to aquatic ecosystem in a number of ways. Oxygen is not soluble in oil and therefore does not easily pass through even when a thin of oil is present on water.