Animal Science

Animal Science

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Entries on Animal Science

Evaluation of in-Vitro Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Constituents of Cassia Occidentalis

Evaluation of in-Vitro Antimicrobial Activities and Phytochemical Constituents of Cassia Occidentalis

Cassia occiden alis (Caesalpiniaceae) is a small tree growing 5 – 8 metres in height (Blumgarten, 1937). The leaves are compound, composite, paripinnate with 5 – 8 pairs of leaflets usually oval.

 
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Moringa Plant and It Use as Feed in Aquaculture Development: A Review

Moringa Plant and It Use as Feed in Aquaculture Development: A Review

Combination of seed and leaf meals in desired proportion might result in obtaining a plant-based protein source that could favourably replace fishmeal in fish feeds. Hence, this review on available information on M. oleifera used in fish feeds exposes the need for further research.

 
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Ecological Survey of Freshwater Ecosystems of Ovia, Edo State Nigeria for Gastropod Molluscs

Ecological Survey of Freshwater Ecosystems of Ovia, Edo State Nigeria for Gastropod Molluscs

The survey for freshwater snails in streams, rivers and a lake in Ovia Southwest LGA of Edo State, Nigeria was carried out from June to November, 2013. Samples were collected by using sweep-net and by hand picking of snails within the open water habitat, at marginal areas and on submerged vegetation at edges of the habitats. A total number of 579 individual snails belonging to 6 families, Ampullariidae (Lanistes varicus), Mutelidae (Aspatharia subreniformis), Thiaridae (Melanoides tuberculata), Bulimlidae (Bulimulus teniussimus, Drymaeus multilineatus), Bithyniidae (Gabbiella humerosa), Hygrniidae (Monacha catiana) were collected. In terms of number and distribution, the Lanistes varicus was the most dominant species consisting of 258(44.6%) of the total number of snails collected. 330(56.9%) number of snails were collected from the open water, 209(36.1%) in the marginal areas and 40(6.9%) on submerged vegetation.

 
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Moringa Plant and It Use as Feed in Aquaculture Development: A Review

Moringa Plant and It Use as Feed in Aquaculture Development: A Review

Combination of seed and leaf meals in desired proportion might result in obtaining a plant-based protein source that could favourably replace fishmeal in fish feeds. Hence, this review on available information on M. oleifera used in fish feeds exposes the need for further research.

 
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Preliminary Checklist of Beetles Associated With Pig Carrions Decomposition in Okija, Anambra State, Nigeria

Preliminary Checklist of Beetles Associated With Pig Carrions Decomposition in Okija, Anambra State, Nigeria

The study to ascertain the beetles associated with decomposing pig carrions in Okija, Anambra State, Nigeria was carried out in an open fallow plot (05o 53.24o N and 006o48.5o E) within the ambient temperature and relative humidity of 30.2 ± 0.28 oC and 68.5 ± 1.34 % respectively. The beetles found on the decomposing carrions were collected with blunt forceps and handpicked. They were preserved in a 70% ethanol and morphologically identified by a taxonomist. The beetles consist of seven families; Chrysomelidae, Dermestidae, Staphylinidae, Cleridae, Carabidae, Scarabaeidae and Histeridae, ten species - Buphonella sp., Dermestes frischii (Klug.), Ocypus raffrayi (Fauvel), Necrobia rufipes (Deg.), Necrobia ruficolis (Fab.), Angionychus lividus (Klug.), Zophosis sp., Gymnopleurus sp., Hypocacculus sp. and Hister sp. The arrival of the beetles was predictable and decomposition stage dependent. Their activities on the decomposing carrions include consumption of the carrion tissues and predating on other carrion insects. Thus, Buphonella sp., Dermestes frischii, Necrobia rufipes, Necrobia ruficolis, Ocypus raffrayi and Hister sp. were referred to as beetles of forensic importance, while the other beetles collected were grouped as either predator of the carrion feeders and/or opportunists on the carrions resource.

 
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Effects of Corn Distillers Dried Grains on the Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hen

Effects of Corn Distillers Dried Grains on the Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hen

Inclusion levels of CDDG above this level were observed to have counter-productive effects on the production performance of bird; this observation is as a result of high fibre level of CDDG.

 
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Effects of Corn Distillers Dried Grains on the Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hen

Effects of Corn Distillers Dried Grains on the Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hen

Laying hens can be fed CDDG at 10-20% inclusion level. Inclusion levels of CDDG above this level were observed to have counter-productive effects on the production performance of bird; this observation is as a result of high fibre level of CDDG.

 
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Macroinvertebrate Fauna of a Tropical Freshwater Stream in Nigeria

Macroinvertebrate Fauna of a Tropical Freshwater Stream in Nigeria

Aquatic macroinvertebrates are an assemblage of aquatic community represented by members of almost all the invertebrate taxa. Most macroinvertebrate are benthic (benthos), others are planktonic or nektonic or surface water dwellers.

 
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Gross and Histomorphological Assessment of the Oropharynx and Tongue of the Guinea Fowl (Numida Meleagris)

Gross and Histomorphological Assessment of the Oropharynx and Tongue of the Guinea Fowl (Numida Meleagris)

These findings may be important in nutritional and medical management of guinea fowls especially under the intensive system of production. Furthermore, our study has provided a foundation for recognition of pathology in the oropharynx and tongue of the guinea fowl.

 
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Blood Glucose Lowering Activity of Five Nigerian Medicinal Plants in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Albino Rats

Blood Glucose Lowering Activity of Five Nigerian Medicinal Plants in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Albino Rats

The blood glucose lowering effects of the aqueous leaf extracts of Cassia alata, Acalypha torta and Breynia nivosa, and aqueous root extracts of Daniellia oliveri and Nauclea latifolia traditionally employed in Nigeria in the management of diabetes mellitus were compared in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. The same dose, 100.0 mg/kg body wt. of each extract was used. Alloxan (150.0 mg/kg body wt.), extracts, and the reference drug, glibenclamide (20.0 mg/70kg body wt.) were solubilized in normal saline and administered intraperitoneally. Investigation into the mechanisms of action of the most potent extract was carried out by determining it’s effects on lipid-peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glucokinase. The extracts caused significant (p< 0.01) reductions in the blood glucose concentrations of the diabetic animals, thereby validating their antidiabetic properties. The order of potency was Nauclea latifolia (79.9%) > Acalypha torta (66.5%) > Breynia nivosa (50.4%) > Cassia alata (39.2%) > Daniellia oliveri (31.9%). The most active extract, Nauclea latifolia, was more potent than glibenclamide. N. latifolia extract decreased malonylaldehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity, although these effects were not statistically significant, whereas significant reduction in catalase activity was noted. Alteration of body’s oxidant-antioxidant balance may be enhancing the antidiabetic activity of Nauclea latifolia root. Glucokinase activity was also significantly (p<0.05) elevated.

 
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In-Vitro Anthelmintic Efficacy of Crude Aqueous Extracts of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaf, Stem and Root on Nematode

In-Vitro Anthelmintic Efficacy of Crude Aqueous Extracts of Neem (Azadirachta Indica) Leaf, Stem and Root on Nematode

The anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous extracts o neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf and stem and root barks against the hatching of eggs and the survival of larvae of nematode parasites of small ruminants were studied.

 
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Effects of Graded Levels of Alphamune G on Performance of Growing Pullets to Laying Hens

Effects of Graded Levels of Alphamune G on Performance of Growing Pullets to Laying Hens

The haugh unit, yolk index and weight gain were observed to have the highest value in layers fed 0.05%. Highest values was observed for % hen day production for laying hens fed 0.06% inclusion level of Alphamune G. In conclusion, among laying hens fed dietary levels of Alphamune G, birds fed inclusion levels of 0.06% performed the best in terms of production characteristics, egg quality and economic value compared to 0.04% and 0.05%.

 
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