Entries on Animal Science
Both phosphate-phosphorus (P04-P) and nitrate-nitrogen (N03-N) were significantly different (P<0.05) when the pond was fertilized. This was attributed to the availability of nitrogen and phosphorus as part of the constituents of chicken droppings. From this study it was observed that the use of fertilizer has favourable effect on the chemical parameters of the pond.
The result of the food and feeding habits showed that the fish feeds mainly on plant part (23.2%), larvae (14.4%), mollusk (24.0%), sand grain (17.6%), detritus (24.8%), Worm (10.4%), Algae (28.8%) and unidentified item (25.6%), respectively. H. bebe occidentalis in Idah area of River Niger could be referred to as an omnivore, feeding mainly on plant materials.
An 8-month old Norwich terrier breed of dog that presented with bilateral prolapse of the third eyelid glands was treated surgically using the modified Morgan’s pocket technique in combination with the tacking of the third eyelids to the periorbital periosteum. The physiologic, haematological and biochemical parameters taken prior to treatment were all within the normal values. The combined surgical approaches adopted for the treatment were clearly described as well as the post-operative management. The patient had a rapid positive response without recurrence even after 4 months, unlike what is always seen when the modified Morgan’s pocket technique is used alone.
There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the storage period and the free-fatty acid of the samples. The refrigerated samples showed the highest levels of rancidity while the salted-smoked method gave the highest level of stabilizing in the proximate composition on storage for 28 days.
The pad had a base of hyaline cartilage. Stratum adiposum was observed and may be site for nutrient storage and also function in reducing friction between sliding muscle fibres since it was sandwiched between muscle fibres. The micromorphology suggest an organ used in trituration and selection of food by gustation. The blood vessels in the bone marrow suggest haematopoietic function. The bone and cartilage present is for support.
Studies were carried out to compare the effects of different edible oils (olive, turkey, palm, groundnut and soya) on lipidomics of blood and organs of rats. Thirty-six male albino rats divided into six groups (n = 6) were fed compounded diets without oil (control) and with different oils (10%) each ad libitum for twenty-eight days. Lipid profiles of tissues (blood, brain, heart and liver) and Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA (HMG CoA) reductase activity in brain and liver were determined. All edible oil-containing diets (especially groundnut and soya oils) significantly reduced (p<0.05) weight gain and daily growth rate. Condition factor was significantly decreased (p<0.05) only in groundnut and increased in turkey oil fed groups compared with other diets. Different lipidomic patterns were elicited by the different oils compared with control. Significant decreases (p<0.05) were observed in level of cholesterol in plasma (olive and turkey oils) and heart (all oil diets) while increases were observed in HDL (olive, groundnut and soya oils), VLDL-LDL (olive, turkey and palm oils), RBC (all oil diets except olive oil group), brain (groundnut and soya oils) and liver (olive and turkey oils). HMG-CoA reductase activity significantly increased in liver of olive, soya and palm oil fed groups and brain (all oil diets) but decreased in liver of groundnut oil group. Triacylglycerol level significantly increased (p<0.05) in plasma and RBC of palm oil group, HDL (turkey oil) and VLDL-LDL (olive, turkey and palm oils) while it decreased in plasma (groundnut and soya oils), brain (all oil diets) and heart (palm and groundnut oils). Phospholipid levels increased significantly (p<0.05) in RBC (all oil diets except the olive), plasma and VLDL-LDL (all oil diets), brain (soya bean oil) and heart (turkey oil). The results indicated that olive, groundnut and soya bean oils are more beneficial to health compared with palm and turkey oils which may predispose to cardiovascular disease.
There had been dearth of information on the level of fetal wastages in slaughtered pigs in West African countries other than Nigeria. This study evaluates the fetal losses due to slaughtering of pregnant pigs at the Kumasi abattoir in Kumasi, Ghana. The ages of the fetuses were estimated using standard technique with the influence of sex, age and breed of pig on fetal loss being evaluated. Data were subjected to descriptive and quantitative analysis. 2817 pigs were slaughtered during the period of the study with a monthly average of 563.1739(61.73%) were sows and 430(29.27%) were pregnant. 141(28.20%) sows were slaughtered in January, constituting the highest throughout the period of the study with corresponding fetal loss of 616(76.60%). Most of the fetuses wasted in this study were recorded in the second and third trimester (83.51%). The percentage of fetal wastage (the total number of fetuses wasted divided by the total number of pigs slaughtered) was 2117(75%) in this study. The results revealed high incidence of fetal losses at the Kumasi abattoir. There is need to advocate for routine veterinary checks and interventions in order to reduce the high level of fetal wastage which call for strategic planning and decision-making on animal food security in Ghana.
Diabetes mellitus may be caused and or exacerbated by certain chemicals or compounds which elicit oxidative stress (Traverso et al., 1999, Ogugua, 2000) in the exposed individual.
The spermatozoon is absorbed into the lumen of the tubule, where they are drawn into the epididymal walls of the testis while the primary oocyte is surrounded by a single layer of flattened follicular cells.
Analyses of the sera using Bradford method and cellulose acetate electrophoresis showed that Vitamin C infected the state of serum protein, albumin and gamma globulin in the trypanosome-infected treated rats. It was concluded that consumption of the Vitamin C ameliorated the pathological changes in serum protein and body weight of T. brucei – infected rats.
Termites feed on decaying organic matter including plant parts and wood, concentrating heavy metals in the process. The main campus of Lagos State University was surveyed for termite species and their heavy metal contents. Nests including mounds, wooden structures and discarded wood products were observed for termite activities and the insect samples collected for identification and subsequent metal analyses. Composite samples of selected termite species and the soil or wood dust around them were respectively digested and analyzed for the presence of Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na). Zinc (Zn) Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that Macrotermes bellicosus (Isoptera: Macrotermitinae), Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) occurred on the main campus of Lagos State University in Ojo, Lagos. Heavy metal analyses of termite castes showed that M. bellicosus worker had Ni, Fe, Cd, Co, Pb, Na and K with Fe having the highest concentration of 24.6 mgL-1 while Co had the least (0.03mgL-1). The reproductive caste had the highest concentration (4.68 mgL-1). The Soldier of M. bellicosus showed the presence of all metals detected in its worker caste excluding Cu & Ni with Fe having the highest concentration (5.12mg/L). The Soldier and Worker castes of Kalotermes similarly showed the presence of the same metals as M. bellicosus soldier. Analyses of data by Kyplot showed high correlation between heavy metal concentrations in study termite species relative to their nest materials.
Bioremediation as a measure that requires interdisciplinary approach is emphasized. The need to use insects that are neither threatened or endangered in entomoremediation in order to achieve overall healthy balance of the soil environment is stressed.