Entries on Animal Science
The food and feeding habit of the catfish Clarias gariepinus in Egbe Reservoir in Ekiti State, Nigeria was studied using 450 Clarias samples collected between January 2010 and November, 2010.
A freshly dead 7 months old turkey from a population of 7 turkeys and 15 chickens with a history of fighting and head lesions was presented for postmortem examination and diagnosis. Postmortem examination revealed swollen head, subcutaneous head abscesses and foot pad abscess (bumble foot) with no evidence of septicaemia and systemic infection.
Vernonia amygdalina is a tropical African woody shrub with diverse phytochemical constituents recently linked with insecticidal properties that could replace the harmful agrochemical pesticide usage around aquatic environment. This study investigates the histopathological changes in the liver and gills of Clarias gariepinus exposed to acute toxic concentrations of V. amygdalina. C. gariepinus juveniles of varied weight (7.28 ± 0.03 g) and length (4.82 ± 0.06 cm) were exposed to graded aqueous concentrations (0.188, 0.375, 0.75, 1.50 and 3.00 g/l) of V. amygdalina. The varied concentrations of V. amygdalina precipitated varied dose-dependent histopathological distortions in the hepatic (central venous congestion and hepatocellular degeneration) and gill parenchyma (lamellar hyperplasia, clubbing and occluded inter-lamellar space) of exposed C. gariepinus. The liver (hepatocyte nuclear diameter and surface area) and gill (secondary lamellar length, width, interlamellar distance and surface area) morphometrics were strikingly altered varied concentrations of V. amygdalina. V. amygdalina seems to be toxic to fish and therefore has to be cautiously applied when used as insecticides to control unwanted organisms around the fish habitats.
This study was carried out to investigate the anaesthetic characteristics of propofol in rabbits with unilateral ureteral obstruction. Rabbits in two groups (B and C) were anaesthetized respectively with 10 mg/kg propofol intravenously (IV) on days 7 and 14 post unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). Healthy rabbits in group A served as the control group and were anaesthetized with propofol (10 mg/kg, IV). Duration of anaesthesia obtained in the control group was significantly (p<0.05) shorter compared to anaesthetic duration of groups B and C. Time of recovery from anaesthesia in group A was significantly (p<0.05) faster compared to that obtained in group C. Quality of induction, recovery quality and depth of anaesthesia were noted to be good in the three groups of rabbits. Apnoea was observed more in diseased rabbits (groups B and C) compared to the healthy rabbits. Heart rate of rabbits in groups A and B increased but decreased in group C decreased post propofol injection (PPI). Respiratory rates (RR) of rabbits in all the groups decreased PPI with the highest respiratory depression noted in group C. Haematocrit of all rabbits increased though not significantly (p>0.05) while white blood cell counts of rabbits decreased PPI. Total serum protein (TSP) and blood urea nitrogen levels of the three groups of rabbits increased PPI though not significantly (p>0.05) PPI. Serum potassium, chlorine and bicarbonate levels of rabbits in all the three study groups increased PPI. Propofol at the dose used in this study induced rapid induction and recovery from anaesthesia, adequate depth of anaesthesia with no untoward haematologic and serum biochemical effects in UUO rabbits. However it’s marked respiratory depressant effect and ability to increase serum potassium levels may preclude its use in advanced UUO
The effect of pentazocine on diazepam/ketamine anaesthesia was evaluated in this study. Pentazocine (10 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly (im) prior to injection of diazepam (2 mg/kg, iv) and ketamine (15 mg/kg, im) in pentazocine /diazepam/ketamine (P/D/K) group. In the diazepam/ketamine group, anaesthesia was induced using diazepam (2 mg/kg, iv) and ketamine (15 mg/kg, im). All rabbits were laparotomized after induction of anaesthesia. Intra operatively, anaesthetic indices, physiologic variables and pain responses of rabbits were studied. Blood glucose and serum cortisol of rabbits were monitored post laparotomy. The durations of analgesia and anaesthesia were significantly shorter (p<0.05) in the P/D/K group. Respiratory rates of P/D/K group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of D/K group. Pain scores of P/D/K group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than scores obtained in D/K group. At 30 and 90 minutes post laparotomy, blood glucose and serum cortisol of P/D/K group were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of D/K group. This study showed that pentazocine/diazepam/ketamine drug combination did not produce surgical anaesthesia in rabbits.
This paper reports a case of a true intersex in a pig in Kumasi, Ghana. The diagnosis was based on gross and histomorphological assessment of the genital organs which consist of a left ovary, two uterine horns and body of uterus, along with a right testis without an epididymis. Vagina and vulva were also absent. A perineal scrotal pouch and a tubular tract connection with an intra-abdominal urinary bladder conducting urine through a miniature paraphimotic sigmoid shaped penis were observed. A rectal prolapse was consequent to rectal compression by the inadequately voided urinary bladder. Gonadal hormonal profiles were analysed and compared in the true intersex and those of the males and female siblings using standard techniques. The embryologic, reproductive, and swine production cost implications of intersex were discussed.
In Ghana, huge quantity of meat is wasted daily due to bruise-related carcass condemnation in the slaughter houses and abattoir throughout the country. However, there is limited information on the impact of such bruise-related meat and financial losses in the country. This study estimated the prevalence of bruises and its financial wastage in bovine carcasses at Kumasi Abattoir. Bovine carcasses totalling 21,336 were examined. Bruised carcasses were identified and bruised parts grouped according to locations as shoulder, loin, butt, rib and other locations. The overall prevalence of bruised carcasses during the short study period was 16.76 % (3576/21336). The total weight of meat condemned and direct financial loss incurred were 622.4 kg and GHȻ 13,609.28 respectively. With regards to location, shoulder had the highest frequency, whereas the rib had the lowest. Education of butchers and cattle traders on human animal transport and handling before slaughter in order to minimize meat wastage and associated financial losses due to bruising is recommended.
Karyotypic information is a useful endpoint in environmental monitoring and breeding programme. Data on karyotype of Labeo coubie is needful for environmental assessment and genetic improvement breeding projects. This study was aimed at determining the karyotype of L. coubie. 10 specimens were obtained from the University of Ilorin dam, Ilorin, Nigeria. Each specimen received intraperitoneally 0.02% colchicine (1ml/100g body weight) and left for 4 hours before sacrificing. Chromosome preparation was made from the kidney and liver. A total of 200 metaphase spreads were scored. The diploid chromosome numbers ranged from 2n =44 to 2n = 50. The modal diploid number was found to be 2n = 50 and this represents 56%. The kidney tissue gave better chromosome preparation. These results contribute to the karyotypic data on L. coubie.
Feed expense constitutes the bulk of the whole cost of production in any intensive aquaculture setup in Nigeria. Consequently, feed and feeding stratagems are of paramount interest for feed utilization as well as profit maximization. However,the paucity of documents on the factors affecting feed intake in cultured fish is negatively influencing the efficiency of fish production from aquaculture. Hence, the major factors influencing feed intake by cultured fish are discussed. These factors include management practices, environment conditions, feed quality, inherent genetic factor and physiological condition of the fish. The review would help to increase basic knowledge on the nutrition (with emphasis on feed intake) of aquaculture species for improved management and productivity.
ABSTRACT: Length-weight relationships (LWR) and standard-total length relationships (STR) were estimated for 87 populations of fishes in Anambra river belonging to 18 families. 33 genera and 45 species The exponent, b , ranged from 2.007 to 3.750 and had a mean of 2.764 ± 0.338, which is significantly less than 3, indicating negative allometric LWR for the multispecies populations studied. The distributions of b and In a were normal and the correlation between them was negative (r = -0.864) and highly significant. STR permits conversion of standard to total length of each population.
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of some parasitic infections and other disease conditions of cattle slaughtered in Nsukka urban abattoir was studied from November to December 2001. The tongues, hearts, masseter muscles, intercostal muscles, lungs, spleens, and livers o cattle were examined for various parasitic infections and disease conditions. The examinations were done by dissection, palpation and other physical procedures. Of the organs examined, the lungs, spleen, and liver were infected. The only case of Cysticercus bovis infection found was in a liver. Also, all cases of Fasciola infections were detected from the liver. Cases of tuberculosis and pneumonia were detected from the lungs. Other disease conditions seen were splenomegaly, jaundice, and telangiactasis. Out of the 150 cattle examined, 30 (20%) were infected or have disease. A total of 150 cattle comprising 116 males and 34 females were examined. The distribution of infections is as follows: 1(0 70%) was infected w th Cysticercus bovis, 15 (10%) with Fasciola gigantica, f . i i 4 (2.70%) with tuberculosis. Other disease conditions include 2 (1.33%) with pneumonia, 3(2%) w th telangiactasis, 2(1.33%) with splenomegaly and 2(1.33%) with jaundice. The overall prevalence of the conditions studied in the slaughtered cattle include Cysticercosis bovis 3.33%, Fascioliasis 50%, tuberculosis 13.33%, pneumonia 6.67%, telangiactasis 10%, splenomegaly 6.67% and jaundice 6.67%.
ABSTRACT: Heavy metal concentrations were investigated over a period of 12 months in five stations in Alau reservoir, Maiduguri, in the North – east sahel zone of Nigeria. The mean concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, iron and manganese were 0.17 + 0.02 mg/l (range 0.14+ 0.03 - 0.19+ 0.02 mg/l), 0.56 + 0.64+ 0.01 mg/l), 0.56 + 0.06 mg/l (range 0.52+ 0.01 - 0.02 mg/l (range 0.54+ 0.03 - 0.58+ 0.06 mg/l), 0.09 + 0.02 mg/l (range 0.07+ - 0.12+ 0.01 mg/l) and 0.19 + 027 mg/l (range 0.04 .+ 0.01- 0.66+ 0.01 mg/l) respectively. Except for lead, mean concentrations varied significantly between stations (P<0.05). The concentrations of heavy metals were below contamination levels and fall within the limits reported for other West African small sahel reservoirs.