Entries on Animal Science
ABSTRACT A survey of gut parasites of rodents was undertaken in Nsukka ecological zone. Out of the 87 rodents caught and examined, 47 (54.0%) were positive for helminth parasites. The prevalence rates for the various rodents examined were 60.0% for Xerus erythropus (squirrels); 59.3% for Cricetomy sp. (giant rats) and 48.9% for Rattus rattus (house rats). The difference in prevalence rates amongst the rodents was statistically insignif cant (P>0.05). The parasites isolated were 2 Cestode species- Hymenolepis sp (17 2%) and Raillietina sp; 3 nematode species- Trichuris muris (9.2%),, Ascaris sp (2.3%), Cyathostomum sp (4.6%) and one Acanthocephalan- Moniliformis morniliformis.(6.9%).
ABSTRACT: Exophagic-anthropophilic mosquitoes were collected during the April 2007-January 2008 planting season in four designated mil et and guinea-corn irrigat on fields sampled in Gezawa Agroecological Zone of North-central Nigeria. Gezawa-1, Gezawa-2, Ketawa and Jogana irrigat on fields contributed about 31.2 %, 24.8 %, 22.8 % and 21.2% respect vely, to the number of mosquito species collected in the zone. There was preponderance of Anopheles gambiae complex (20.7 %) over Culex quinquefasciatus (11.8 %), C. pipiens fatigans (9.0%), A. funestus complex (7.0 %), Aedes aegypti (6.9%), A. albopictus (6.6 %), C. p piens pipiens (5.7 %). C tigripes (5.0%), A. pharoensis (3.7 %), A africanus (3.6%), A. taylori (3.4%), A. coustani (3.3 %), A. luteocephalus (2.9 %), A. vittatus (2.8 %), A. rhodesiensis (2.1 %) Manson a (2.0 %) A. simpsoni (1.9 %) and Psorophora species (1.6 %). A Shannon-Wiener and Simpson’s diversity values of 1.1431 and 0.0925 were recorded for the mosquito species in Gezawa Agricultural Zone. A. gambiae had the highest Shannon-wiener diversity and Simpson’s dominance ind ces of 0.1415 and 0.0427 respectively. There was no significant difference between species diversity for the four irrigation fields (P>0.001). Vector control must be carried out in the irrigation fields to reduce the number of these out-door biting mosquitoes, since total reliance on ACTs and ITNs could not offer full protection against malaria to farmers in Gezawa irrigation fields.
ABSTRACT: Antagonistic effects of ce triaxone and sulphadimidine on ketamine and thiopentone anaesthetics were studied in Nigerian local dogs. Twenty – four N gerian local dogs were used for the study. The dogs were divided into s x groups: A, B, C, D E, and F, with four dogs per group. Groups A and B were intravenously administered 17 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg body weight f thiopentone and ketamine respect vely. But groups C and D were administered 23 mg/kg and 100mg/kg body weight of ceftriaxone and sulphadimidine respectively in addition to 20 mg/kg body weight of ketamine. However, groups E and F were administered intravenous dose of 23 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg of ceftriaxone and sulphadimidine respectively in addition to 17 mg/kg weight body of thiopentone. Vital parameters such as determination of anesthesia; onset and duration, temperature, respiratory and heart rates were recorded. The results of onset of duration of anesthesia revealed significant difference (P< 0.05) among group E, F and A animals. Although the result of onset anesthesia revealed significant difference between group A and B animals (P < 0.05). The values of respiratory rate revealed significant difference between the animals in groups D and B as well as groups F and A (P < 0.05). The values of heart rate showed significant difference between group C and D animals as well as between E and A animals (P < 0.05). Conclusively, sulphadimid ne and cerftriaxone caused decreased duration of both anesthesia and onset of anesthesia when either was coadministered with ketamine or thiopentone in Nigerian local dogs. Sulphad midine also caused increased respiratory rate, but cerftriaxone caused decreased and increased heart rate if coadministered with ketamine and thiopentone respectively..."
The length-weight relatonship and condition factor of four mormyrid species namely Mormyrus rume, Hyperopisus bebe, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Gnathonemus petersii from Anambra river were investigated from October 2002 to March 2004. In al400 species M. rume, 384 H. bebe417 C. tamandua and 335 G. petersii were sampled for the study Length-weigh relationship showed that the exponent “b,’ were 3.067, 2.459, 3.201 and 3.114 for M. rume, H. bebe, C. tamandua and G. petersii respectively. The mormyrid species studied with exception of H. bebe exhibited isometric growth and the correlation coefficients were positive and highly sgnificant (P < 0.05). The condtion factor (k) varied from 0.69 ± 0.22 in G. petersii to 1.17 ± 0.59 in M. rume. There were no significant difference in the mean condition facor between themales and females inall the mormyrid species. The importance of condition factor in the breeding activities o the mormyrid species revealed that not much energy s diverted into gonad synthesis and maturation during the breeding cycle season.
Tails of three groups of the Gekkonid lizard, Hemidactylus flavivirdis, were amputated (group I) orautotomized (groups II and III). The animals were exposed to 12 hours of ight and 12 hours of darkness. Ingroup I experiment, previously regenerated tails were amputated (repeated autotomyRA) with a pair of sharp scissors, after anesthetizing the animals with ice cubes, at point equivalent to three autotomy segments. The orginal planes of autotomy have been replaced by ependymal tubes and there were noblood exudates,. In group II the spinal cord at thelocal site of autotomy was carefuly removed (spinal cord removed, SCR), with dissecting instruments, for a length equal to one autotomy segment Lizards in group III served as controls (NormalLizard NL). The results show that the initiation o regeneration, the growth rate, the total length of new growth (regenerate) produced, and the total percentage replacement of the lost (amputated/autotomized) tails 30 days after excision were all signiicantly less in lizards of group II (p < 001) and insignifcantly less in group I lzards, when compared with the controls (group III). The results show that for complete regeneration of the lizard tai neural tissue must be present.
The food and feeding habits of 417 samples of Campylomormyrus tamandua (Osteichthyes Mormyridae) in Anambra River, Nigeria were studied from October 2002 to March 2004. Fish samples were collected monthly at Otuocha and Ogurugu river ports along the Anambra river using a fleet of gill nets of various mesh sizes, traps and hook and lines. Out of the eight (8) categories ofood consumed, the most dominant group was benthic invertebrates (IFS = 4492) followed by alochthonous invertebrates (IFS = 33.40) whe the least was mud/sand (IFS = 10.02). Variaton in the stomach fullness condition showed that 82 (19.66%) ofthe stomachs studied were empty 40 (9.59%) were full while 295 (7074%) were partially filled Food richness and diet breadth showed no significant difference between the seasons and sex respectively (P > 0.05). The trophicvariations and flexibility in C. tamandua are discussed.
The susceptibility of 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were evaluated in laboratory. Larval mortality was assessed 24 hour afterexposure. The result showed that the LDi, .50 values for Aedes aegypti exposed to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were 0.48, 37.09 and 0.29 μg per liter respectvely. The LD50 values for Culex quinquefasciatus of exposed to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were 0.11 10.05 and 005 μg per liter respectively.
Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the pupicidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts (NSKE) on Aedes aegypti. The neem seed kernel powder was sequentially extracted with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, DMSO, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol and dstiledwater. Ten concentratons (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 50, 10.0,15.0 and 20.0%) of the neem extracts were used for the bioassays. Each treatment was replcated five times. Twenty-laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti pupae were exposed to each concentration Pupae were not fed durng the exposure periods. Pupal mortality was assessed after 1 and 24 hoursof exposure. The results of the effects of 1h exposure indicated decreased pupicidal mortality whdecreasing extracts toxicity thus: ethyl acetate (LC i l i . i . i it . i l i l l l 50 = 0.06%) > acetone > (LC50 = 0.29%) > benzene (LC50 = 0.82%) > hexane (LC50 = 3.13%) and propanol (LC50 = 763%). No pupal mortality was observed with extracts from Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, methanol and distilled water. The results of the effect of extract for 24h exposure indicated pupicidal mortality in2-propanol (LC50 = 0.67%) and ethanol (LC50 = 1.70%). No pupcida mortality was observed wth hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), methano and distiled water extracts. The ability of some neem extracts to kill Aedes pupae at relativey low concentrations presents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of mosquitoes. This techniqueis environmental friendly, biodegradable, less expensive, and locally available in mosquito endemicarea. Potentials for adoption in mosquito management programmes cannot be overemphasized.
ABSTRACT: Populations of exotic and indigenous domestic chickens and guinea fowls in northeastern Nigeria were surveyed for Plasmodium sp by examining their stained blood samples. The packed cel volumes of all blood samples were estimated. During the period of study (March to September 2006), rain a data were collected. The prevalence of Plasmodium in ect on in 575 domest c poultry examined was 9.4 % and the prevalence among the difference poultry types (exotic broilers and layers, indigenous chickens and guinea fowls) did not dif er signi icantly (P > 0.05).There was a significant (P < 0.05) positive correlation between the monthly prevalence and ra nfal wth mean prevalence hgher (P < 0.05) in the rainy than dry months. Packed cell volume (PCV) o uninfected and infected domestic chickens did not d ffer significant y (P > 0 05), but the infected guinea fowls had lower (P < 0.05) mean PCV than the uninfected ones. In conclusion, Plasmodium sp infection was prevalent among the domestic poultry; and whereas the infection did not cause anaemia in chickens, mild anaemia was observed in infected guinea fowls..
ABSTRACT: The records of meat inspection carried out for 24 consecutive days at the Awka main abattoir in Anambra State, south-eastern Nigeria, was used to estimate the direc economic loss in carcass condemnat on due to bovine cysticercosis. Among the 614 catt e slaughtered 306 (49.8 %) were examined, out of which cyst cerci were detected in 61.1 %, 61.1 %, 46.2 %, 45.2 % and 50.7 % of the Massetter, Tongue, Inter-costal, Diaphragmatic and Pectoral muscles from 221 (72.2 %) of infected cattle. This amounted to an estimated loss of l N N ,186892.38 in terms of condemnat on of cysticerci-infected carcasses. Condemnation due to generalized infection o the specified organs amounted to i f i l109467.50 (58.6 %), wh le moderate y and ocal y infected organs contributed l N l l28435.08 (15.2 %) and N48989.8 (26.2 %) to the tota loss, respectively. This loss was equivalent to 4 heads of cattle in 24 days at N50000 per head, which translated to an annual loss of N l i 2842321.61 or 57 heads of catt e at the Awka main abatto r alone. Since 10000 to 20000 trucks of beef-cattle are reported to be daily transported to abattoirs in different parts of Nigeria, the direct economic loss of revenue in the beef industry on account of cysticercosis would run into billions of naira. This result will promote evidence-based decision on the control of cysticercosis in the country and elsewhere...
ABSTRACT: A four months research survey of arthropod pests infesting dried fish sold in a tropical urban community market (Ogige), Nsukka, N geria showed that 10 genera o dried freshwater fish (Synodontis, Hemisynodontis, Oreochromis, Hepsetus, Gymnarchus, Labeo, Protopterus, Heterobranchus, Alestes, Heterotis) and two species of cod fishes sold in the market were arthropod infested. The pests were extracted by i umination and cracking methods and identif ed using relevant taxonomic keys. Voucher specimens were kept n the Museum of Natural History, Department of Zoology University of Nigeria. Each of the fish genera harboured at least one of the following arthropods: Dermestes maculatus, Necrobia rufipes, Lardoglyphus konoi, Theridion saxatile and Tribolium castaneum. T. castaneum was found only in fish bones in the stall. Besides the resident pests, Perip aneta americana, Lucilia spp, Calliphora spp and Musca domestica were visiting pests of the dried fish sampled. D. maculatus was the dominant res dent pest accounting or 57.07 % of the col ected arthropods wh le Necrobia rufipe was next in importance, accounting for 21.54 % The pests were identified using keys and voucher methods.
ABSTRACT: Adult Clarias albopunctatus (mean weight 64.8 ± 1.09 g) were subjected to anaesthesia for 72h with ketamine hydrochloride. The fish demonstrated uncoordinated and gyratory movements before reaching anaesthesia. The time taken to reach anaesthesia at the tested concentrations of ketamine differed in the treatment groups (P < 0.05). The haemoglobin, liver and plasma glucose concentrations were determined at 2, 4, 12, 48 and 72h interval. The mean liver and glucose concentrations were significantly elevated by ketamine hydrochloride (p < 0.05).The mean haemoglobin concentration was also significantly increased in the anaesthetized fish (p < 0.05). Both the liver and plasma glucose concentrations were significantly increased in the anaesthetized sh. The result showed that ketamine hydrochloride appeared to have long-lasting anaesthetic effect on the fish.