Agricultural Engineering

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Entries on Agricultural Engineering

A Module for Thermal Pest Control in Stored Raw Materials Used in Feed Mills / Food Manufacturing Industries

Pests have continued to be problematic in warehouses of most feed mills and food manufacturing industres. Pests are heterogeneous both in space and time, creating gradients and patterns depending on the prevailing environmental variables. Pest control efforts have utilized manipulations of these variables. This project is ona module for thermal control of pests using the hitherto waste steam from the indusries. The module is an engineering contraption, which uses steam to raise temperature within it to insecticidal levels (above 45°C). This causes halt in development and proein denaturing (leading to mortality) of the pests (eggs, larvae and adults). This applied heat also toasts the material inside the module thereby improving its quality. The module consists of a rotary drum with steam passing through convoluted tube (without coming in contact withthe handledmaterial), with a capacity o 2 tons/hr o commodities. It accepts steam at 130°C and discharges it at 110°C. The steam pressure (permssible) is 2.7 bars. Steam velocity is 8m/s. The volume of the drum is 4 m3. A two- screw- 90 degrees-lead –counter screw-rotation typebaffle is installed to achieve even distribution of heat on the material within the drum. The moduleis efficient, effective and useful in any integrated pest management effort.

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Performance of Sheep Grazing Brachiaria Decumbens, Panicum Maximum and Pennisetum Purpureum in Combination With Gliricidia Sepium

The introduction of forage legumes into grass pastures has generally improved grazing animal production by increasing total edible biomass and nutrient profiles. An experiment was designed tostudy the performance of sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum in combination with Gliricidia sepium. Eighteen paddocks of approximately 0.03 ha were used in the tra Nine of the paddocks had Gliricidia sepium alley planted in rows 4 mapart and interplanted with 4 rows of either Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum, or Pennisetum purpureum. The other nine paddocks had only the grass species withoutthe Gliricidia sepium. The paddocks were each grazed by 3 sheep. The pure grass stands without the Gliricidia sepium served as controls for the grass species in combination with Gliricidia sepium. The three grasses and their combinations within the alley plots were replicated three times.The animals weregrazed continuously for 28 days in the sub plots. Sheep grazing the Gliricidia/Panicum plot had a higher (P < 001) growth rate (38 g d-1) than those animals grazing both the Gliricidia/Bracharia (23 g d-1) and Gliricida/Pennisetum (21 g d-1) plots respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sheep grazing the Gliricidia/Bracharia and Gliricidia/Pennisetum plots. The total dry matter intake of sheep on the Gliricidia/Panicum plot was higher (P < 005) (1.33 kg DM d-1) than that of sheep on Gliricidia/Bracharia (0.86 kg DM d-1) and Gliricidia/Pennisetum (0.43 kg DM d-1) plots respectivey. The total biomass from the Gliricidia/Bracharia (23 t ha -1)and Gliricidia/Panicum (21 t ha -1) plots respectively were higher (P < 001) than the total biomass from the Gliricidia/Pennisetum ( 13 t ha -1) plo. These results demonstrate that grazing West African dwarf sheep in a Gliricidia sepium/Panicum maximum plot improved their growth rate during dry season when feed supplies are limited. It also underscores the poor performance of animals

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Extraction of Oil From Mango Seed

Uploaded by Nwaokobia Kingsley

The extraction of oil from mango seeds was investigated. Mango seeds were collected, dried and ground into powder. The mango oil was extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus. Hexane and Ethanol were used to extract the oil at varying time of extraction (4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours). The yield of oil was determined for each experiment. The effects of time and extraction solvent on the yield of oil was investigated by using a 22 factorial design. The effects of the extraction solvent on the physicochemical properties was also investigated. Oil extracted with hexane had better overall quality than the Ethanol extracts. Its acid value, saponification value, ester value, refractive index and specific gravity were 5.61 mgKOH/gOil, 207 mgKOH/gOil, 201.39 mgKOH/gOil, 1.443 and 0.909 respectively. Hexane always gave higher yield of oil than Ethanol. The results suggest that Hexane is a much better solvent for the extraction of mango oil.

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Extraction of Oil From Mango Seed

Uploaded by Nwaokobia Kingsley

The extraction of oil from mango seeds was investigated. Mango seeds were collected, dried and ground into powder. The mango oil was extracted using a Soxhlet apparatus. Hexane and Ethanol were used to extract the oil at varying time of extraction (4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 hours). The yield of oil was determined for each experiment. The effects of time and extraction solvent on the yield of oil was investigated by using a 22 factorial design. The effects of the extraction solvent on the physicochemical properties was also investigated. Oil extracted with hexane had better overall quality than the Ethanol extracts. Its acid value, saponification value, ester value, refractive index and specific gravity were 5.61 mgKOH/gOil, 207 mgKOH/gOil, 201.39 mgKOH/gOil, 1.443 and 0.909 respectively. Hexane always gave higher yield of oil than Ethanol. The results suggest that Hexane is a much better solvent for the extraction of mango oil.

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Minimizing Fuel Consumption

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Reasons Why People From Developed Countries Dread Undderdocx

Uploaded by Nnaemezie Emeka

Research shows that poor governance, illiteracy, disease and lack of political will are the major factors hindering development. Our government need act now!

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