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Agricultural Economics

Agricultural Economics

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Entries on Agricultural Economics

Constraints and Determinants of Technical Efficiency in Medium-Scale Soybean Production in Benue State, Nigeria

Constraints and Determinants of Technical Efficiency in Medium-Scale Soybean Production in Benue State, Nigeria

Abstract: "This study presents the empirical analysis of the constraints and determinants of technical efficiency in medium-scale soybean production in Benue State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected on 64 medium scale soybean farmers selected from the 2 major soybean-producing agricultural zones in the state in Nigeria. The selection of respondents was multi-staged and involved random sampling as well as purposive sampling methods. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the constraints on soybean production while translog stochastic frontier model was used to estimate the determinants of technical efficiency of the farmers. The major constraints on soybean production as perceived by medium-scale farmers among others was inadequate processing facilities (X = 3.42) and lack of mechanical services (X = 3.41). The average technical efficiency was about 73%. The determinants of technical efficiency which were statistically significant were sex, age and experience. Sex and age had an inverse relationship with technical inefficiencies of the farmers while experience had a direct relationship. Hence, Nigeria public and private policies that would improve the farmers’ experiences in soybean production especially in handing the available technologies would lead to significant increase in the level of technical efficiency in medium-scale soybean production..."

 
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Determination of the Critical Period for Cattle Farming in Cameroon

Determination of the Critical Period for Cattle Farming in Cameroon

"The study was carried out between 2006 and 2009 to determine the critical period for cattle farming in Cameroon. Data were collected on-farm using diachronic observations of cattle herds and pastures for 24 months. These data analysed with descriptive and Duncan multiple range test statistics, permitted to show that the period from December to April was critical. This period was characterized by poor forage quality in the pastures: 33.3 g crude protein/kg DM (dry matter), 72.8 g minerals/kg DM and 364.9 g crude cellulose/kg DM against 61.3, 93.1 and 326.7 g/kg, respectively found in the rainy season (considered as a better cattle farming period); continuously decreased animals performances: An average monthly weight loss of 13.25 kg against an average weight gain of 14.45 kg in the rainy season and an average monthly calving rate of 2.31% against 5.21% in the rainy season. It was found that this drop in animal’s performances was equivalent to an economic loss of 247,682,998,000 FCFA (378,141,982 euros) per year. These results could serve as decision making tools for livestock sector improvement in Cameroon and other African countries..."

 
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Determinants of Capital Structure of Listed Agro Firms in Nigeria

Determinants of Capital Structure of Listed Agro Firms in Nigeria

Abstract: This paper examines the determinants of capital structure of agro-listed firms in Nigeria, using data generated from the financial statements of twenty eight (28) agro-allied firms, which have been listed in the Nigeria Stock Exchange (NSE) from 2005 to 2010. The major tool for data analysis was Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), which was used to analyze the identified firm-specific variables that affect short and long term debt ratios. All measured capital structure were scaled by the book value of total assets. In terms of short term debt ratio, large firms were perceived to have enough tangible assets at their disposal to pledge as collateral and access debt capital. Highly tangible firms also use more short-term debts, as high tangible asset reduced the magnitude of debt loss incurred by debt providers if the firms default. Growing listed firms used more short term debts, presumably due to their huge capital requirement for financing new short term investment opportunities and the need to meet current liabilities and other overhead expenses. Growing firms are presumed to lack both tangible assets and cheap long term credit sources of information and as such depends mostly on short term debts. The result further shows agro-listed firms with high taxes use more short term debts in their finances. Highly profitable firms do not depend on short-term debts, as they are perceived to be liquid enough to finance their short term investment through retained earnings at the expense of taking short term debts. In terms of long term debt ratio, highly profitable firms use less long term debts, implying that they have enough internally generated funds for their financing needs at the expense of borrowing..."

 
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Effects of Economic  Partnership Agreements on Agricultural Trade Between Nigeria and the Eu

Effects of Economic Partnership Agreements on Agricultural Trade Between Nigeria and the Eu

Abstract: "Smart simulation Computable Partial Equilibrium (CPE) Methodology was employed in this study to determine the Effects of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) on Agricultural trade between Nigeria and the European Union (EU). Specifically, the study investigated the patterns of imports of Nigeria; the potential import effects on the country embarking on free trade under the economic partnership agreements scenario; the potential revenue effects on the country under the same platform; the potential welfare effects on the country under the same platform; and the sensitive products for the country based on source and volume of import criteria. World integrated trade solutions (WITS) provided access to international trade and protection related data and offered built-in-analytical tools for the study. Results of the analysis on patterns of import of the country showed that Nigeria imported much of her agricultural products from the Rest of the World (ROW), and least from ECOWAS region. Product group 10(cereals) constituted 38.50% of the total imports. Result on Potential Import Effect of EPAs, showed that Nigeria will gain $35330.1 million in “Trade Creation” and looses $14947.484 million in terms of “Trade Diversion”, with Total Import Effect amounting to $50277.6 million. Result on the Potential Tariff Revenue Effect showed total likely tariff revenue loss of -$16666.7 million for the country. Result on Potential welfare effect showed likely welfare gains of $2238.8 million for the consumers in all the agricultural products studied. Result on sensitive products based on source and volume criteria, showed that product groups 3, 4 and 15 were identified to house potential sensitive products for the country ..."

 
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Impact of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in India on Rural Poverty and Food Security

Impact of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in India on Rural Poverty and Food Security

Uploaded by Balogun Eminem

A study based on regional and micro level household data was taken up to inquire in to the impacts of a national rural employment guarantee scheme (NREGS) in India. Studies in four sample districts in predominantly rainfed areas, which benefited from the scheme for the last six years indicated that the scheme attempted to address the core issue of rural unemployment of unskilled labor in earth works related to natural resource management. Primarily the rural labor obtained seasonal employment, but the resource poor farmers also participated in the Scheme more so in states like Maharashtra. The study findings indicated that the seasonal migration of rural labor has come down significantly due to the opportunities of employment provided under the scheme. The share of NREGS employment was up to one-third of wage days in some of the study districts. Similarly the contributions of income to the family from the wages of participation in the scheme were in the range of 12 to 33 per cent across the districts. These additional incomes were used by the rural households primarily for food security, education of dependents, health care and debt repayment. Wherever, the there were surpluses beyond these expenses, the households acquired durable assets and created amenities in the households. The negative fall out of the Scheme, albeit at a low scale, especially from the farming point of view is that there was abnormal rise in the wage rates. The scheme thus is a revolutionary one with broad spectrum impact on the rural milieu of India. KEYWORDS: food security,Employment guarantee scheme,income,labor,migration,poverty,wages

 
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Impact of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in India on Rural Poverty and Food Security

Impact of National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in India on Rural Poverty and Food Security

Uploaded by Balogun Eminem

A study based on regional and micro level household data was taken up to inquire in to the impacts of a national rural employment guarantee scheme (NREGS) in India. Studies in four sample districts in predominantly rainfed areas, which benefited from the scheme for the last six years indicated that the scheme attempted to address the core issue of rural unemployment of unskilled labor in earth works related to natural resource management. Primarily the rural labor obtained seasonal employment, but the resource poor farmers also participated in the Scheme more so in states like Maharashtra. The study findings indicated that the seasonal migration of rural labor has come down significantly due to the opportunities of employment provided under the scheme. The share of NREGS employment was up to one-third of wage days in some of the study districts. Similarly the contributions of income to the family from the wages of participation in the scheme were in the range of 12 to 33 per cent across the districts. These additional incomes were used by the rural households primarily for food security, education of dependents, health care and debt repayment. Wherever, the there were surpluses beyond these expenses, the households acquired durable assets and created amenities in the households. The negative fall out of the Scheme, albeit at a low scale, especially from the farming point of view is that there was abnormal rise in the wage rates. The scheme thus is a revolutionary one with broad spectrum impact on the rural milieu of India. KEYWORDS: food security,Employment guarantee scheme,income,labor,migration,poverty,wages

 
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Concept of Economics

Concept of Economics

Uploaded by Samuel Shade

 Economics can be described as the study of how resources are used to satisfy the needs and desires of people. Humans do not live in a world of infinite resources since most goods and services, as well as inputs used in the production of goods, are available in limited supplies.

 
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Comparative Effect of Organics and Biofertilizers on Growth and Yield of Maize

Comparative Effect of Organics and Biofertilizers on Growth and Yield of Maize

Uploaded by Adamu Tayo

A field experiment to study the “Comparative efficiency of organics and biofertilizers on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.)” was conducted during Kharif 2011 at farmer field in Beluguli village, Chikkanayakanahalli taluk (Tumkur district). The maize cultivar Nithyashree (NAH 2049) was used in the study. The field experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with fourteen treatments and three replications. Results of the treatment (T13) having recommended dose of NPK + Azotobacter chroococcum + Bacillus megaterium + Pseudomonas fluorescence + enriched compost has showed highest plant height at 30, 60, 90 days after sowing and at harvest (120 days) (31.70, 180.93, 186.07 and 188.13 cm respectively). The highest total dry matter production at harvest (375.80 g) and yield parameters like Weight of cob (207.63 g), Grain yield per plant (158.93 g), Grain yield per ha (54.53 q) and Test weight of seeds (33.10 g) was also found highest in this treatment and available nutrient content in soil after crop harvest i.e., nitrogen (185.40 Kg ha-1), phosphorous (38.83 Kg ha-1) and potassium (181.47 Kg ha-1) was also found highest in the same treatment combination. KEYWORDS: organics, biofertilizer, maize

 
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Comparative Effect of Organics and Biofertilizers on Growth and Yield of Maize

Comparative Effect of Organics and Biofertilizers on Growth and Yield of Maize

Uploaded by Adamu Tayo

A field experiment to study the “Comparative efficiency of organics and biofertilizers on growth and yield of maize (Zea mays L.)” was conducted during Kharif 2011 at farmer field in Beluguli village, Chikkanayakanahalli taluk (Tumkur district). The maize cultivar Nithyashree (NAH 2049) was used in the study. The field experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with fourteen treatments and three replications. Results of the treatment (T13) having recommended dose of NPK + Azotobacter chroococcum + Bacillus megaterium + Pseudomonas fluorescence + enriched compost has showed highest plant height at 30, 60, 90 days after sowing and at harvest (120 days) (31.70, 180.93, 186.07 and 188.13 cm respectively). The highest total dry matter production at harvest (375.80 g) and yield parameters like Weight of cob (207.63 g), Grain yield per plant (158.93 g), Grain yield per ha (54.53 q) and Test weight of seeds (33.10 g) was also found highest in this treatment and available nutrient content in soil after crop harvest i.e., nitrogen (185.40 Kg ha-1), phosphorous (38.83 Kg ha-1) and potassium (181.47 Kg ha-1) was also found highest in the same treatment combination.

 
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Pharmacognostic Characterization and Phytochemical Screening of Achyranthes Aspera Linn.

Pharmacognostic Characterization and Phytochemical Screening of Achyranthes Aspera Linn.

Uploaded by Tobi Olorun

Achyranthes aspera Linn. is a well-known plant drug in Ayurvedic, Unani-Tibbi, Siddha, Allopathic, Homeopathic, Naturopathic & Home Remedies. The present communication deals with the pharmacognostic evaluation on the different parts of Achyranthes aspera Linn. (Amaranthaceae). Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the different organ, observations and differential microchemical test has been carried out for the authentication of the samples. Physiochemical values such as the Moisture contents, percentage of total ash, acid insoluble ash, acid soluble ash, extractive values like petroleum ether-soluble extractives, ethanol-soluble extractives, methanol-soluble extractives and water-soluble extractives were calculated as well as colour reactions of powder and extract with different chemicals were performed. The extracts were subjected to qualitative screening test for various constituents. This revealed the presence protein, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins and phenolic compound, steroid reducing sugars and saponin glycosides. These observations will help in the Pharmacognostical identification and standardization of the drug in the crude form and also to distinguish the drug from its adulteration. KEYWORDS: Achyranthes aspera,Acanthaceae,pharmacognosy,Ayurveda,Unani-Tibbi,Homeopathy,Naturopathy

 
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Effect of Air Pollution on Chlorophyll Content of Leaves

Effect of Air Pollution on Chlorophyll Content of Leaves

Uploaded by Joe Budden

In the present investigation, comparative studies have been done, to find the effect of air pollutants generated from the exhaust of industries and automobiles on the chrorophyll content of leaves. The leaves samples of Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, Mangifera indica and­ Dalbergia sissoo were collected from areas with potentially higher and lower levels of air pollution Photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids were quantified. A reduction in the photosynthetic pigments of plant leaves growing in higher polluted site as compared to non or less polluted ones.

 
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Rice Irrigation Farming System a Way to Produce More Yield in Nigeria

Rice Irrigation Farming System a Way to Produce More Yield in Nigeria

Uploaded by Adamsy Hassan

When its comes to production and maintenance of farming system, it's not how large the field is but how it's maintain to produce more yield and less labour and expenses especially during dry season farming system. Different fertilizers are are also apply at a specific crop growth

 
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