Entries on Africa
ABSTRACT :Since the works of such colonial scholars as Arthur Glyn Leonard, Northcote W. Thomas, Armory Talbot and M.D.W. Jeffreys, followed by the epic archaeological excavations at Igbo-Ukwu and the subsequent works of M.A. Onwuejeogwu, the questions of which sub-group represent the original settlers of Igbo land as well as constitute the original bearers of Igbo culture have continued to revolve around the orbit of controversy. Until the discovery and subsequent excavation of the Igbo-Ukwu archaeological sites, these issues had revolved around the Nri, also known as the Umunri, following the accounts of the colonial writers whose works were more ethnographically sensational than historical in objective and method. Although the Umunri thesis of Igbo origins and culture was originally applied in the interpretation of the Igbo-Ukwu sites, further historical researches proved the contrary. It was this emerging evidence which revealed that, originally the Umunri were not of Igbo but of Igala extraction which consequently questioned the authenticity of the Umunri claims of primordial rights and privileges under the aegis of Igbo history and culture. It was on the basis of this twisted historical evidence the Igbo-Ukwu, from whose soil the artefacts were excavated, began the lay claims to the same primordial rights originally centered on the Umunri, thus giving rise to a stream of controversy on which the other sub-groups have either become co-contestants or biased arbiters. The present work therefore looks at this stream of controversy through telescopic approach of a historian of Igbo extraction.
INTRODUCTION: "Nigeria’s socio-political and economic problems have largely defied scientific, technological and commercial moves towards lasting solutions. Scarcity of essential commodities is on the increase, insecurity of life and property looms high in the horizon, necessary resources for quality teaching and learning in the educational sector are still far from sight. The country’s leadership is not crossing its legs, savouring the conundrum – or is it?..."
Abstract: This study sought to investigate the effect of simulation method on secondary school students’ achievement in Government. It is a quasi-experimental study of non equivalent group design. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A sample of 120 students from two randomly selected secondary schools in Ayamelum Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria was used for the study. Government Achievement Test (GAT) was developed, validated and used for data collection. The instrument (GAT) was trial-tested using Kudder-Richardson (K-R20) which established a reliability index of 0.87 which warranted its use for the study. Mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used for the data analysis. The results revealed that students performed significantly better in Government when exposed to simulation method than conventional lecture method. It was also found that male and female students’ achievement using simulation method, do not differ significantly. It concluded that if simulation method is adopted in teaching Government, students would learn practical skills and develop critical thinking ability that will help them survive in the society. The study recommended among others that curriculum designers should recommend simulation method as one of the interactive and participatory approaches to the study of Government and that government teachers adopt it in their teaching.
Abstract:Some studies assert with evidence that the concept of a supreme God is foreign to Igbo pre-missionary contact religious thoughts. They mostly point to western influences on such a “supremacy” concept in both the minds of the early observers of the Igbo and in the Igbo themselves who had been either proselytized or swayed by the proselytization of Christianity, consciously or not. Other scholars confirm the presence of a supreme God in Igbo religious thoughts. Using Georg Hegel’s Dialectic and Uzodinma Nwala’s Radical Interpenetration as theoretical framework, this work presents both views, collecting data through documentary evidence of ethnographic reports and closely examining the perspectives of ethnographic reports in pursuit of any undeniable proof of the existence and extent of structure and popularity of the concept of supreme deification in Igbo thoughts. The evolution of Igbo traditional religious systems catalyzed by migrant knowledge and the adoption and syncretization of the appurtenances of outside cultures were investigated. The researchers came to the deduction that for the pre-Aro adult Igbo, the definition of supreme Deity is different from western thinking today in that a supreme Deity is particularistic or universal in a decentralized form for a given Igbo clan and from the viewpoint of that clan, the deity is the highest among gods in the world (where “world” meant a smaller sphere than is seen today)...
ABSTRACT The controversy over how appropriately the Nigerian dramatist can convey his cultural experience and narrative to his audience through the conduit of an imported language burdened with its alien set of conventions, syntax and structure has engaged many Nigerian anthropological and literary scholars for some time now. How a particular society perceives a character presented by the narrator depends largely on how a parallel line connecting that character to the peculiar qualities, personalities or situation in that society can be well drawn by the folk dramatist. Language and communication are essential features of drama and in the retelling of these folk stories, performers indirectly become language teachers to their audience, and assist them to re-learn it. The functional theory of folk theatre which makes it a source of vital information about the culture of the Nigeria society, and trainer of enhanced language skills, has been ignored. Presently, folktales are fast disappearing from the life of the average Nigerian family as people face new modes and foreign languages of entertainment. People have lost the enduring lessons of our folktale tradition. Government has disregarded the need to pass on indigenous language inherited from the ancestors to their offspring. Indigenous language needs to evolve to take on the challenge of foreign languages. The article examines the measures to be adopted to breach this language divide and salvage this situation.
Abstract The need for peaceful co-existence and social stability has never been more urgent in Nigeria than it is today. This is why ways of achieving them should be, and in fact they actually are, in the front burner of government agenda at all levels of governance in Nigeria. In line with this concern, this paper takes a look at the ways language can be used to foster, promote and sustain ethno-religious tolerance as a means of ensuring social stability in Nigeria. The task in the paper involves highlighting the features and functions of language as a peculiar human possession, conceptualizing ethnic and religious tolerance to put them in the perspective of this paper, and outlining how language use can help bring about peaceful ethno-religious co-existence. The paper concludes that language use can make or mar social relations and that toleration is indispensable for a healthy co-existence in a multi-ethnic society. Recommendations are given on how to ensure proper exploitation of language features and functions for peaceful co-existence and social stability. The core of the recommendations is that deliberate steps should be taken to promote mutual understanding of one another’s culture, language and religion.
Abstract This article discusses the need to maximize the potentials of artists with special needs for sustainable development in Nigeria. The qualitative research design was adopted and interviews were applied. The findings show that though some artists live with severe, mild or moderate disabilities, they are resourceful. They have the ability to perform artistic and inartistic activities. Regrettably, Nigerian governments, the management of arts institutions and civic bodies have not usefully engaged or explored the capabilities of the artists with disabilities into the nation’s work force. This paper concludes that one of the ways to manage the potentials of artists with disabilities, and improve their lives is for the government, civic bodies and arts administrators to provide them full and productive employment, and work. Alternatively, they should be provided with infrastructure to enable them establish, manage and own artistic business ventures towards self- reliance and self- sufficiency.
Abstract The style of the man is the man and a skillful merger of, theme and style makes for the excellence of a literary style. Nwabueze appreciates the truth in this fact and, therefore, weaves a story that violates every known conversational principle but projects a pragmatic force that speaks more powerfully than ordinary words of the play, A Parliament of Vultures. This paper, therefore, explores the provisions of implicature in pragmatics to show how it is that Nwabueze uses ordinary words and sentences of English to send messages that have no direct relationship with the formal additive value of the linguistic medium of transmission. By this, the paper shows that language is an adaptable instrument for a fictional representation of events in real life.
ABSTRACT Literary artists have, over the years, used literature to mirror the society in which they live. These artists are not just concerned with man’s relationship with the environment in which he lives. What happens to the wild life in the bush and the fishes of the sea and the sea in which they live and what happens to the birds of the air and even the free air in which they fly are of great concern to the artist especially as these ecological conditions affect man and the general peace of the environments .This study examines the effect the environment has on Riverine Poetry. In every aspect of life, you attribute certain qualities of a man, certain behavioral patterns, and certain modes of perception to the environment. When related to literature, certain innate qualities of literature of a place are affected by that environment. In other words, one can just see the prevalent issue of environmental degradation, human right violation, abuse of power, and how these factors affect the life and destiny of the people in the affected communities. This study, therefore, examines riverine poetry and how the poets and the poems are affected by the environment.
ABSTRACT:Tourism is an economic activity of global significance. Its value has drawn attention to it from both public and private sectors. Tourism planning is essentially the deployment of tourism chattels and their development into a marketable state and should incorporate considerations of implementation i.e. how the plan is to be achieved. The topical issue in tourism looks widely at its sustainability which is achieving eminence growth in a manner that does not deplete the natural and built environments, but preserves the cultural history and heritage of the host community. This is sacrosanct since the problem of tourism in this part of the world has always been meager tourism development planning that is devoid of quality impact studies on features under study. As a result, funding on tourism projects and stakeholders support is always discouraged. Ndiowu is a virgin tourist destination and replete with various cultural and natural attractions. This paper examines sustainable tourism planning and the planning process in relation to the study area. It also provided a survey of the resources, both the attractions, accommodation and other facilities that could aid in proper tourism promotion of Ndiowu community. It went further to analyze various impacts of the tourism plan, the development plan in phases and its carrying capacity for sustainable tourism planning of Ndiowu Community.
Abstract:Nigeria after over 50 years of nationhood is still bedevilled with issues bordering on citizenship and indigene ship. The seriousness of this matter is highlighted by reactions from sections of the people that trail the composition of each set of federal executives. Often we have complaints from people that some persons nominated for federal appointments are not indigenes of the states their names appeared against. Some crises like the lingering Jos crisis are also traceable to indigene- settler issues. The paper adopts a content analysis of the 1999 constitutional provisions and its practice to examine the phenomena of citizenship, indigene ship and federal character. It is evident that the constitutional stress on indigene ship and federal character are the drivers of the agitations and some of the crisis in the land. It is hence suggested that the 1999 Nigerian constitution be amended to recognize citizenship and residency as basis for political appointments.
ABSTRACT:The Aro sub- culture group of the Nigeria no doubt played important role in pre-colonial period as oracular agents woven in slave trade. They were mainly slave merchants whose oracle played the role of a spiritual conduit through which its unsuspecting client were sold into slavery. In other words, this dreaded oracle, Ibinu-Ukpabi, also known as the long juju, which is situated at Arochukwu played the dastardly role of sending those who appeared before it but could not pay themselves through for freedom into slavery. Ironically, during the hey-days of the British colonial activities, the activities of the aro became elevated by the simple omission of historical facts to the status of an Igbo civilization. By this simple act of omission, the Aro soon assumed the status of a superior socio-political cast among the Igbo. This obvious misrepresentation was to lead to a stream of intellectual controversy among Igbo scholars and local political partisans. This resulting controversy which was originally rooted in C.G. Seligman’s hamitic hypothesis, was expounded by a notable colonial anthropologist - - H.F. Mathews and later appropriated by succeeding Igbo scholars of Aro school of thought. It borders on the claim of indigenous pre- colonial imperialism over the rest Igbo group by the Aro. The present work explores the facts, myths and probabilities of this concept of a racially superior branch of the Igbo culture group as represented by the Nri and Aro. In the process of exploring the evidence, a number of dependent historical and hypothetical question were raised. This is primary query which will most probably strike the mind in the context of primeval Igbo origins and identity? In other words...