Entries on Africa
Education as a process of acculturation exists in every culture of any people in the world with the aim of meeting the needs of the learner and those of the immediate community as well as the wider society. This process of educating or training the younger generation and gradually integrating them into meaningful and functional adult life does not necessarily mean literacy and is not limited to occurring within the four walls and corners of a classroom. The health and wealth of any nation depend on its educational system and thus no society can rise above its level of education; be it African or European. Charity they say begins at home. This is because the home is the first environment the child finds him/herself. Therefore, the family which is the smallest social unit of the society serves as the base for the success or failure of education of all kinds anywhere in the world.
The book which is about the origin, theory and practice of Federalism in Nigeria examines the travails and prospects of application of the Federal system of government in the most populous country in the African Continent. The authors argued that the option of federalism is undoubtedly the best option in Nigeria by which too many of the ethnic expressions and identities can be successfully managed. However, they have demonstrated that despite its viability, the application of the federal system of government in Nigeria has met several challenges, ranging from constitutional crises, and the war, too many military interventions/engagements in the nations’ body politic, ethnic nationalism etc. The authors have further shown that at the moment, the prospect of the Nigerian Federalism appear rather bleak and wondered if the system worked well in some other countries why can’t it work in Nigeria? The book is presented in eight chapters: Chapter one deals with Conceptual and Theoretical Issues in which the concept of Power and Federalism is clarified. Chapter two deals with the antecedents and origin of Federalism in Nigeria. Chapter three is concerned with the emergence of political structures along the ancient problem of multi-ethnic and religious identities in Nigeria. The idea of the chapter is to underscore the necessity for federalism in a country with too many nationalities. Chapter four which is a follow upof the previous issues deals with the problem of ethnic minorities in historical perspective. Chapter five is on Federalism under crises in Nigeria. Chapter six examines the shuttle between the successive military and civilian regimes in Nigeria since 1960. Chapter seven is on the controversial issue of Resource Allocation in Nigeria since 1960 to date, while chapter eight examines the prospects of Federalism in the present century. From the foregoing, it is evident that the authors have succeeded in clarifying the basic issues of Federalism in Nigeria.
This paper seeks to examine the concept of Military Industrial Complex as a critical factor in the promotion of national security in Nigeria. It examines the experiences of the BRIC Nations of Brazil, India and South Africa to demonstrate the models other countries have adopted in the development of indigenous defence industries which are critical for fostering Military Industrial Complex (MIC). Thus, the existence of a viable MIC and robust manufacturing industries increases the capacity of states in readiness towards curbing threats leveled within or outside its territorial boundary. This paper argues that the weak manufacturing base of Nigeria significantly contributes to its failed efforts at evolving a strong and robust military industrial complex. Therefore, it is pertinent for Nigeria’s capacity and readiness to respond to security challenges to be enhanced quickly with the development of a strong military industrial complex. Keywords: National Security, Military Industrial Complex, BRIC,
Conflict is a part of life, but when turned violent, it can be like a handshake that extends beyond the elbow which can no longer be tolerated. In a similar understanding, the internationalization of the Congo conflict is very complex due to the various involvements of states. However, in accomplishing the objective of this research, the problem that led to this conflict and made this study possible was the spillover effects from the conflict. There were issues arising from internal and external countries and actors taking sides, and also the involvement of organizations on regional continental and global levels. My findings however included the use of proxies in the DR Congo conflict, which served as part of the factors that played out mostly by external states sponsoring rebel groups to help fight in Congo, and the exploitation of the resources of DRC through transnational networks was an intricate system of political economic and socio-cultural forces. My recommendation for the issues brought out by this study was that there should be a development in the defense base of the Congo, there should be an improvement in one of the arms of government so that in the long run, it would enhance their balance of power system, and make it possible for them to check each other for more effective administration, States should provide basic amenities for the citizens, in other to avoid divided loyalty, in situations of intervention, proper agreements should be laid out in other to avoid an infringement, and the democratic system of government should be encouraged, because when the democratic peace theory is applied states would engage each other on the basis of war. Keywords: Internationalization, Conflict, Political and socio-cultural forces, Balance of Power
The rise of terrorism in Africa is as a result of the instability, crisis, precarious situations and quagmires among others which are on top notch. These problems, though complex and disturbing, had followed a particular trend in term of terrorism with the rise of insurgents’ as Al-Qaeda, Boko Haram, Hamas and Hezbollah in various states in Africa. Solutions that have been propounded to the issues on terrorism and how to stop the insurgency have failed. The negativism and inherent political intrigues in solution findings towards resolving the terrorist question are but obvious. Thus, the bombing of the US Embassy in Kenya in 1998, the Bombing of the United Nations Headquarters, Abuja, 2009 have therefore brought terrorism to the highest rung of the ladder. Therefore, this paper therefore seeks to revisit the concept of terrorism in light of the terrorist groups in Nigeria, Mali and Kenya and also revisit the fundamentals which have been ignored by the agencies set up to curb the stigma of terrorism as well as propound strategies for covering terrorism. Keywords: Terrorism, Negativism, Political Intrigues, Instability and Insurgency.
This research aims at identifying the root causes of political crisis in Nigeria and blackgold (oil) being the underlying factor for this crises. The focus is on the Niger Delta and its festering crisis which stems from the regions critical importance to Nigeria. Over the years, the Niger Delta region has had the highest risk of political unrest, simply because the region is rich in terms of oil and gas productions in Nigeria. As the nation’s treasure base, the Niger Delta provides over 80% of government revenues, and 90% of foreign exchange earnings. Also, the bulk of Nigeria’s bio-diversity and some of her best human resources are derived from the Niger Delta. This research recognizes the fact that there have been earlier proffered solutions to the crisis in the region, hence, it aims at recognizing other causes of the crisis that have not been properly addressed. Also, this research, most importantly will refer to some prior solutions that would gradually help in addressing and proffering solutions to the crises in the Niger Delta region. Keywords: Political Crises, Black-gold, Oil and Gas, Bio-Diversity, Human Resources.
INTRODUCTION Christianity, like every other religion, carries with it certain cultural imperatives. The terms "religion and culture" are often used in a rather confusing manner. Some use the two terms as if they were two sides of the same coin: that is, in contexts that suggest that religion is one half of a whole and culture the other half. Others use the two terms in a way that suggests an opinion that one could be interchanged with for the other; in other words, that religion and culture mean one and the same thing.
ABSTRACT : Since the works of such colonial scholars as Arthur Glyn Leonard, Northcote W. Thomas, Armory Talbot and M.D.W. Jeffreys, followed by the epic archaeological excavations at Igbo-Ukwu and the subsequent works of M.A. Onwuejeogwu, the questions of which sub-group represent the original settlers of Igbo land as well as constitute the original bearers of Igbo culture have continued to revolve around the orbit of controversy. Until the discovery and subsequent excavation of the Igbo-Ukwu archaeological sites, these issues had revolved around the Nri, also known as the Umunri, following the accounts of the colonial writers whose works were more ethnographically sensational than historical in objective and method. Although the Umunri thesis of Igbo origins and culture was originally applied in the interpretation of the Igbo-Ukwu sites, further historical researches proved the contrary. It was this emerging evidence which revealed that, originally the Umunri were not of Igbo but of Igala extraction which consequently questioned the authenticity of the Umunri claims of primordial rights and privileges under the aegis of Igbo history and culture. It was on the basis of this twisted historical evidence the Igbo-Ukwu, from whose soil the artefacts were excavated, began the lay claims to the same primordial rights originally centered on the Umunri, thus giving rise to a stream of controversy on which the other sub-groups have either become co-contestants or biased arbiters. The present work therefore looks at this stream of controversy through telescopic approach of a historian of Igbo extraction.
INTRODUCTION: "Nigeria’s socio-political and economic problems have largely defied scientific, technological and commercial moves towards lasting solutions. Scarcity of essential commodities is on the increase, insecurity of life and property looms high in the horizon, necessary resources for quality teaching and learning in the educational sector are still far from sight. The country’s leadership is not crossing its legs, savouring the conundrum – or is it?..."
Abstract: This study sought to investigate the effect of simulation method on secondary school students’ achievement in Government. It is a quasi-experimental study of non equivalent group design. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A sample of 120 students from two randomly selected secondary schools in Ayamelum Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria was used for the study. Government Achievement Test (GAT) was developed, validated and used for data collection. The instrument (GAT) was trial-tested using Kudder-Richardson (K-R20) which established a reliability index of 0.87 which warranted its use for the study. Mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used for the data analysis. The results revealed that students performed significantly better in Government when exposed to simulation method than conventional lecture method. It was also found that male and female students’ achievement using simulation method, do not differ significantly. It concluded that if simulation method is adopted in teaching Government, students would learn practical skills and develop critical thinking ability that will help them survive in the society. The study recommended among others that curriculum designers should recommend simulation method as one of the interactive and participatory approaches to the study of Government and that government teachers adopt it in their teaching.
Abstract: Some studies assert with evidence that the concept of a supreme God is foreign to Igbo pre-missionary contact religious thoughts. They mostly point to western influences on such a “supremacy” concept in both the minds of the early observers of the Igbo and in the Igbo themselves who had been either proselytized or swayed by the proselytization of Christianity, consciously or not. Other scholars confirm the presence of a supreme God in Igbo religious thoughts. Using Georg Hegel’s Dialectic and Uzodinma Nwala’s Radical Interpenetration as theoretical framework, this work presents both views, collecting data through documentary evidence of ethnographic reports and closely examining the perspectives of ethnographic reports in pursuit of any undeniable proof of the existence and extent of structure and popularity of the concept of supreme deification in Igbo thoughts. The evolution of Igbo traditional religious systems catalyzed by migrant knowledge and the adoption and syncretization of the appurtenances of outside cultures were investigated. The researchers came to the deduction that for the pre-Aro adult Igbo, the definition of supreme Deity is different from western thinking today in that a supreme Deity is particularistic or universal in a decentralized form for a given Igbo clan and from the viewpoint of that clan, the deity is the highest among gods in the world (where “world” meant a smaller sphere than is seen today)...